Understanding the working & the need for Waste Water Management in India

Indian Cities do have Sewage Treatment Plants in India. In fact, After China, India is the only country which is working on the water treatment activities very efficiently and effectively. We all know, sewage water is the result of domestic activities, natural activities like rain and industrial activities. Regular flow of infected water may increase the flow of sewage which needs to clean. As if the water flows up on the roads, it haphazard the regular commutation.

Usually waste water is thrown over the roads or may be stored in big tanks which may recycled for further construction and agriculture work.

What is Waste Water? How is it generated?

Waste water is the water that emerges after fresh water is used by human beings for domestic, commercial and industrial use. This document will restrict itself only to the waste water generated due to domestic use.

By and large,it is fresh water that is used for a variety of domestic uses such as washing, bathing & flushing toilets. Washing involves the washing of utensils used in cooking, washing vegetables and other food items, bathing, washing hands, washing clothes.

The water that emerges after these uses contains, vegetable matter, oils used in cooking, oil in hair, detergents, dirt from floors that have been washed , soap used in bathing along with oils/greases washed from the human body. This water is referred to as “ Grey Water” or sullage.

Water used to flush toilets to evacuate human excreta is called “ Black Water” or Sewage.

Grey water is easier to purify as compared to black water, i.e sewage. However, the practice predominantly followed in India is to combine these two wastes to discharge into a public sewer or into a sewage treatment plant in a residential community/ building that has no access to a public sewer.

What are the constituents of waste water (sewage) ?

Waste water contains all the dissolved minerals present in the fresh water that was used and which became waste water as well as all the other contaminants mentioned above. These are proteins, carbohydrates, oils & fats. These contaminants are degradable and use up oxygen in the degradation process.

Therefore, these are measured in terms of their demand for oxygen which can be established by certain tests in a laboratory. This is called Bio Degradable Oxygen demand(BOD). Some chemicals which also contaminate the water during the process of domestic use also degrade and use oxygen and the test done to establish this demand which is called Chemical Oxgen demand (COD).

Typically a domestic sewage would contain approximately 300 to 450 mg/litre of BOD and COD on an average. Sewage also contains coliform bacteria (e coli) which is harmful to human beings if water containing such bacteria is consumed(drunk). E coli is bacteria that thrives in the intestines of warm blooded creatures such as humans, animals and birds.

Another feature of sewage is the high level of Total Suspended Solids (TSS). This is what gives the sewage a black colour ,hence the name “ black water”. If sewage is allowed to turn septic, it then also has a strong, unpleasant odour.

what is the need for treating waste water ?

Much of the water used for domestic purposes does not require potable ( suitable for drinking) water quality. For instance, water used for flushing toilets or for washing floors, yards or roads & gardening does not require to be potable. In a scenario where fresh water is getting increasingly scarce and when enormous volumes of sewage generated in the country are not being treated ,but goes unchecked to pollute fresh water from lakes, rivers and the ground water table, it must be treated.

Discharging untreated sewage into any drains other than an underground sewerage system, or into open land , is an offence and invites prosecution under the laws of all Pollution Control Boards in the country.

Sewage must necessarily be treated correctly and then re-used/re-cycled for various uses that do not need potable water quality. Recycling/re-using treated sewage can reduce fresh water requirements very substantially, by almost 50-60%.

In a scenario where fresh water availability itself is increasingly in doubt this is critical.

How can treated sewage be re-used/re-cycled ?

This requires plumbing to be laid so as to serve two sets of storage tanks on the roofs of any residential/commercial building. One set of storage tanks will be used to receive and store fresh water which will flow through plumbing laid to take it to bathrooms and kitchens where it can be used for drinking, cooking, washing & bathing.

The second set of tanks will receive treated sewage which will be connected by plumbing to all the flush tanks in toilets and to other points where the water can be used for washing yards, floors and also for gardening.

How is waste water treated ?

Sullage (grey water) which is mentioned above, if collected in a storage tank separately can be treated by aerating it to prevent it from turning septic, and then dosed with a coagulant, chlorinated and then subjected to filtration by pressure sand filtration followed by activated carbon filtration and stored in a separate overhead tank or tanks from which it can be used for flushing toilets and other uses where fresh or potable water is not required.

However, the current practice is to combine sullage and sewage (black water) and treat the mixture in an STP (Sewage treatment plant). This practice has come in predominantly to reduce the cost of construction of two separate plants and because space is now at a premium in any building.

why not consider grey water treatment seriously in spite of the extra space it requires ?

From the point of view of a resident it is worth considering as it enhances the water security of the resident. A builder’s priority is totally different, since the space taken up by the treatment system can not be ‘sold’ to a buyer, he will just not consider it, instead the builder will combine greywater with sewage in an STP. This enables the builder to save costs.

However if looked at from the residents’ view point, a separate grey water treatment system being easier to operate provides a facility to ‘fall back on’ when the STP fails.

 

How can common problems in Water water treatment plant can be avoided and/or resolved?

  • Modern designs for STPs which are modular are available from reputed companies which are in the field of water and waste water treatment. Such companies have standardized designs where,for instance an STP to handle 150 KLD ( 150,000 Litres per day) of sewage can be made up of 3 modular STPs each of 50KLD capacity. Such an installation would be able to handle the initial lower load of sewage with one module in operation with remaining modules being commissioned/started up as the sewage volume increases. Such a modular approach also makes it possible to handle sewage in the case of a break-down of the STP as it is extremely rare for all modules to break-down together. In short, there is a stand-by always available. For several years now a few companies have been offering microbial agents which can help overcome these problems if these microbial agents are added to the incoming sewage. Go in for Modular STPs & use microbial agents regularly.

 

  •  It is equally important to know and be able to control the volume of fresh water used in a community so that it does not exceed the design capacity of an STP. This involves installing water meters at all crucial points to measure water flow (consumption) & thereafter taking action to curb excess consumption of fresh water to prevent overloading the STP. Control excess consumption of fresh water and thereby prevent overloading of the STP

 

  • Builders are not expected to be experts in water or sewage treatment plant design, manufacture etc. They can however have tie-ups with reputed environmental engineering companies with sound technical experience and a proven track record, to make up for their lack of knowledge. This seldom happens since a builder’s interest ends with selling a completed project and then handing over the project to the Resident’s Association as soon as possible, often without even demonstrating actual, successful operation of the water infrastructure. Most builders link up with small, obscure local companies with inadequate knowledge and expertise in waste and water treatment,but will put up something for an extremely low price. The result is poor/ wrong operation of an STP leading to untreated sewage and unpleasant odours from it. Ensure supply of an STP from a reputed supplier and entrust operation & maintenance to a well trained professional team.

 

  • One of the major reasons for STPs not working properly is the fluctuations in input loads. Flow of sewage in a residential community is never uniform. It varies with peak flows in the morning (residents getting ready to go to work), very low or almost no flows later in the day with another peak in the evening. Raw sewage is collected in a sewage balancing tank(mentioned above) which should be sized to hold at least 6 to 8 hours flow of sewage. This ensures that the sewage collected in the balancing tank is homogenized, thereby avoiding input fluctuations in input load on the STP. Do not compromise on the size of a raw sewage balancing tank.

 

  • High noise levels from an STP are due to the operation of electric motor driven equipment such as pumps, air blowers, air compressors, etc. Old designs/makes of pumps, blowers , compressors , etc are still available at very low prices in the market and these are used in most of the STPs that have been put up. The noise levels of such equipment is very high as compared to modern, world class pumps and rotary motor driven equipment now available in India. These modern makes are almost noiseless and extremely efficient. The old designs are also the cause of high energy consumption in addition to very high noise levels. As per the laws in force in India, the noise level permitted in a residential area is 55 dB (dB= decibels of sound) during day time,i.e from 6:00 am to 10:00 pm and 45 dB during night time(10:00pm to 6:00 am).As compared to these limits, the actual noise levels are likely to be as high as 75 dB or higher. To reduce noise levels and high energy consumption, it will be necessary to replace most of the critical rotary motor driven equipment with the latest noiseless high efficiency equipment. Here it is advisable to choose a reputed company with an established reputation in sewage/waste water treatment to buy an STP. Such companies have constantly improved their designs to reduce the foot prints (space occupied) of their equipment and reduction in the power consumption of power by a very appreciable amount. Unfortunately, residents have no say in this as they face up to this crucial fact when it is too late as the STP has been ordered probably even before the residents bought a home in the property.

Population growth and particularly the development of megacities is making SWM in India a major problem. The current situation is that India relies on inadequate waste infrastructure, the informal sector and waste dumping. There are major issues associated with public participation in waste management and there is generally a lack of responsibility towards waste in the community. There is a need to cultivate community awareness and change the attitude of people towards waste, as this is fundamental to developing proper and sustainable waste management systems. Sustainable and economically viable waste management must ensure maximum resource extraction from waste, combined with safe disposal of residual waste through the development of engineered landfill and waste-to-energy facilities. India faces challenges related to waste policy, waste technology selection and the availability of appropriately trained people in the waste management sector. Until these fundamental requirements are met, India will continue to suffer from poor waste management and the associated impacts on public health and the environment.

What exactly Energy audit is and the benefits Involved with it

A Energy Audit for a Building is a service where the energy efficiency of a Building is evaluated by a person using professional equipment (such as blower doors and infrared cameras), with the aim to suggest the best ways to improve energy efficiency in heating and cooling the house.An energy audit of a home may involve recording various characteristics of the building envelope including the walls, ceilings, floors, doors, windows, and skylights. For each of these components the area and resistance to heat flow (R-value) is measured or estimated. The leakage rate or infiltration of air through the building envelope is of concern, both of which are strongly affected by window construction and quality of door seals such as weather stripping. The goal of this exercise is to quantify the building’s overall thermal performance. The audit may also assess the efficiency, physical condition, and programming of mechanical systems such as the heating, ventilation, air conditioning equipment, and thermostat.A energy audit may include a written report estimating energy use given local climate criteria, thermostat settings, roof overhang, and solar orientation. This could show energy use for a given time period, say a year, and the impact of any suggested improvements per year. The accuracy of energy estimates are greatly improved when the homeowner’s billing history is available showing the quantities of electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, or other energy sources consumed over a one or two-year period.Some of the greatest effects on energy use are user behaviour, climate, and age of the Building. An energy audit may therefore include an interview of the Building owner to understand their patterns of use over time. The energy billing history from the local utility company can be calibrated using heating degree day and cooling degree day data obtained from recent, local weather data in combination with the thermal energy model of the building. Advances in computer-based thermal modelling can take into account many variables affecting energy use.A Energy audit is often used to identify cost effective ways to improve the comfort and efficiency of buildings. In addition, homes may qualify for energy efficiency grants from central government.Recently, the improvement of smartphone technology has enabled homeowners to perform relatively sophisticated energy audits. This technique has been identified as a method to accelerate energy efficiency improvements.During an Energy Audit Equipments & instruments that are required are ultrasonic flow meter, anemometers, lux meters, DP manometers, temperature sensors, power analyzer and HOBO loggers to work at multiple sites simultaneously. We perform energy audit services for all types of HVAC systems, chiller plants, boiler plants, steam systems, compressed air pneumatic systems, refrigeration systems, lighting and electrical systems.An energy audit is recommended to determine the energy consumption associated with a facility and the potential savings associated with that energy consumption.From a general point of view, an energy audit provides enormous benefits in different areas:
  • It helps reduce energy costs in your facility.
  • With a reduction in production costs, the competitiveness of your company will be improved.
  • It helps reduce the dependence on foreign energy sources.
  • It helps reduce environmental damage and pollution.
  • It can increase the security of your energy supply.
  • It can reduce the consumption of natural resources.
  • It can reduce damage to the environment associated with the exploitation of resources.
  • It helps reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emissions.
At a particular level, among the major benefits of doing an energy audit are:
  • It helps you to lower energy bills.
  • It enables you to increase the comfort of those in the facility.
  • It helps you to increase the life span of the equipment in your facility.
  • It discovers any unaccounted consumption that may exist at the facility.
In summary, an energy audit can identify energy consumption and energy costs of the facility and it can evolve over time to develop measures to eliminate waste, maximize efficiency and optimize supply energy.The energy audit affects three key factors:
  • profitability through optimization of energy expenditure
  • productivity through optimization of equipment and processes
  • performance, thanks to the rationalization of energy use.

Impact of Indoor Air Pollution in Buildings & need to improve the Indoor Air Quality

Indoor Air Pollution

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. Understanding and controlling common pollutants indoors can help reduce your risk of indoor health concerns.

Health effects from indoor air pollutants may be experienced soon after exposure or, possibly, years later.

Immediate Effects

Some health effects may show up shortly after a single exposure or repeated exposures to a pollutant. These include irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, headaches, dizziness, and fatigue. Such immediate effects are usually short-term and treatable. Sometimes the treatment is simply eliminating the person’s exposure to the source of the pollution, if it can be identified. Soon after exposure to some indoor air pollutants, symptoms of some diseases such as asthma may show up, be aggrevated or worsened.

The likelihood of immediate reactions to indoor air pollutants depends on several factors including age and preexisting medical conditions. In some cases, whether a person reacts to a pollutant depends on individual sensitivity, which varies tremendously from person to person. Some people can become sensitized to biological or chemical pollutants after repeated or high level exposures.

Certain immediate effects are similar to those from colds or other viral diseases, so it is often difficult to determine if the symptoms are a result of exposure to indoor air pollution. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the time and place symptoms occur. If the symptoms fade or go away when a person is away from the area, for example, an effort should be made to identify indoor air sources that may be possible causes. Some effects may be made worse by an inadequate supply of outdoor air coming indoors or from the heating, cooling or humidity conditions prevalent indoors.

Why are people suddenly talking about IAQ?

The reason is indoor air quality in India; especially Delhi has become very poor. Over a million people in India die every year because of indoor air pollution, among st the highest in the world. Unlike many western countries, India does not have any norm for indoor air pollution, which mandates emission norms for home appliances such as refrigerators, air-conditioners and bread toasters and a limit beyond which dirty air inside homes can be bad for one's health. The World Health Organisation (WHO) warned that healthier homes and workplaces could prevent around 1 million deaths, globally, a year, and explicitly singled out indoor air quality as a factor.

Factors Affecting Indoor Air Pollution

Much of the building fabric, its furnishings and equipment, its occupants and their activities produce pollution. In a well functioning building, some of these pollutants will be directly exhausted to the outdoors and some will be removed as outdoor air enters the building and replaces the air inside. The air outside may also contain contaminants which will be brought inside in this process. This air exchange is brought about by the mechanical introduction of outdoor air (outdoor air ventilation rate), the mechanical exhaust of indoor air, and the air exchanged through the building envelope (infiltration and exfiltration).

Pollutants inside can travel through the building as air flows from areas of higher atmospheric pressure to areas of lower atmospheric pressure. Some of these pathways are planned and deliberate so as to draw pollutants away from occupants, but problems arise when unintended flows draw contaminants into occupied areas. In addition, some contaminants may be removed from the air through natural processes, as with the adsorption of chemicals by surfaces or the settling of particles onto surfaces. Removal processes may also be deliberately incorporated into the building systems. Air filtration devices, for example, are commonly incorporated into building ventilation systems.

Managing the Indoor air Quality in Buildings

Remodeling and Renovation

  • Use effective strategies for material selection and installation.
  • Isolate construction activity from occupants.

Painting

Establish a protocol for painting and insure that the protocol is followed by both in-house personnel and by contractors.

  • Use low VOC emission, fast drying paints where feasible.
  • Paint during unoccupied hours.
  • Keep lids on paint containers when not in use.
  • Ventilate the building with significant quantities of outside air during and after painting. Insure a complete building flush prior to occupancy.
  • Use more than normal outside air ventilation for some period after occupancy.
  • Avoid spraying, when possible.

Pest Control Integrated Pest Management

  • Use or require the use of Integrated Pest Management by pest control contractors in order to minimize the use of pesticides when managing pests.
  • Control dirt, moisture, clutter, foodstuff, harborage and building penetrations to minimize pests.
  • Use baits and traps rather than pesticide sprays where possible.
  • Avoid periodic pesticide application for “prevention” of pests.
  • Use pesticides only where pests are located.
  • Use pesticide specifically formulated for the targeted pest.
  • Apply pesticides only during unoccupied hours.
  • Ventilate the building with significant quantities of outside air during and after applications.
  • Insure a complete building flush prior to occupancy.
  • Use more than normal outside air ventilation for some period after occupancy.
  • Notify occupants prior to occupation.
  • If applying outside, keep away from air intake.

Establish and Enforce a Smoking Policy

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major indoor air contaminant. A smoking policy may take one of two forms:

  • A smoke-free policy which does not allow smoking in any part of the building.
  • A policy that restricts smoking to designated smoking lounges only.

Managing Moisture and Mold

Mold thrives in the presence of water. The secret to controlling mold is to control moisture and relative humidity

  • Keep relative humidity below 60% (50%, if feasible, to control dust mites)

Keep all parts of the building dry that are not designed to be wet

  • Adequately insulate exterior walls or ceilings to avoid condensation on cold surfaces
  • Insulate cold water pipes to avoid sweating
  • Clean spills immediately. Thoroughly clean and dry liquid spills on porous surfaces such as carpet within 24 hours, or discard the material
  • Do not allow standing water in any location
  • Maintain proper water drainage around the perimeter of the building
  • Provide sufficient exhaust in showers or kitchen areas producing steam

Thoroughly clean areas that are designed to be wet

  • Wash floors and walls often where water accumulates (e.g., showers)
  • Clean drain pans often and insure a proper slope to keep water draining
  • Insure proper maintenance and treatment of cooling tower operations

Discard all material with signs of mold growth

  • Discard furniture, carpet, or similar porous material having a persistent musty odor
  • Discard furniture, carpet, or similar porous material that has been wet for more than 24 hours
  • Discard ceiling tiles with visible water stains

Conclusion

The direct impact of indoor air quality will not be readily apparent. It could be long to see a statistical change. But one thing we keep in mind that “People have the right to breathe clean and safe air everywhere”.

Require Planning for Strong Storm water Management in India

Stormwater is the water draining off a site from the rain that falls on the roof and land, and everything it carries with it. The soil, organic matter, litter, fertilisers from gardens and oil residues from driveways it carries can pollute downstream waterways.

Rainwater refers only to the rain that falls on the roof, which is usually cleaner. However, stormwater can be a valuable resource. Reusing stormwater can save potable water and reduce downstream environmental impacts.

In urban areas stormwater is generated by rain runoff from roofs, roads, driveways, footpaths and other impervious or hard surfaces. In Australia the stormwater system is separate from the sewer system. Unlike sewage, stormwater is generally not treated before being discharged to waterways and the sea.

Poorly managed stormwater can cause problems on and off site through erosion and the transportation of nutrients, chemical pollutants, litter and sediments to waterways. Well-managed stormwater can replace imported water for uses where high quality water is not required, such as garden watering.

A homeowner can take simple steps to manage stormwater and reduce its environmental impact.

Take some simple steps to better manage stormwater and reduce the environmental impact of your home.

  • Avoid cut and fill on your block when preparing the building foundations. Attempt to maintain the existing topography and drainage pattern.
  • Retain vegetation, particularly deep-rooted trees. They lower the watertable, bind the soil, filter nutrients, decrease runoff velocities, capture sediment and reduce the potential for dryland salinity.
  • Reduce erosion potential on site during building works by minimising the time that land is left in an exposed, unstable condition. Employ sediment traps and divert ‘clean’ stormwater around the disturbed site (see Sediment control).
  • Minimise the area of impervious surfaces such as paved areas, roofs and concrete driveways.
  • Grade impervious surfaces, such as driveways, during construction to drain to vegetated areas.

A stormwater site plan can help reduce stormwater runoff from the site.

  • Detain stormwater on your block where practicable through use of permeable paving, pebble paths, infiltration trenches, soakwells, lawns, garden areas and swales.
  • Harvest and store roof water for use (see Rainwater).
  • Take care with the substances used on your land as they can end up in the stormwater. Don’t overuse fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides; follow the manufacturer’s instructions on the amount and frequency of application. Look for organic alternatives.

Water sensitive urban design slows stormwater runoff and improves filtration and infiltration.

  • Avoid using solvent-based paints. After using water-based paints, clean brushes and equipment on a lawn area to trap contaminants before they reach waterways. Plant-based paints are the most environmentally benign.
  • Visit a car wash that recycles wash water. If this is not an option wash your car on the lawn or on an area that drains to lawn. The nutrients (mostly phosphates and nitrates) in the detergent fertilise the lawn instead of degrading waterways. Note that many native plants do not tolerate detergents.
  • Do not build on floodplains as the land may be periodically subject to inundation and may have a high watertable. Councils can advise on the 1 in 100 year flood level.

The traditional approach

The traditional stormwater management response relied on conveyancing. Water was conveyed by a pipe or channel from a collection area (e.g. house and street) to a discharge point (e.g. the nearest ocean, creek, river or lake). The conveyancing system sought to remove the most water (high quantity) from a site in the shortest time possible (high velocity). Large, impervious paved areas and big pipes are typical of conveyancing.

The traditional system of conveyancing is highly effective in reducing stormwater nuisance and flooding on site, unless the pipes get blocked. But it merely transfers the problem to the other end of the pipe and ultimately upsets local water balance. Stormwater is carried rapidly with its suspended litter, oil, sediment and nutrients, and dumped into a receiving waterbody that then becomes flooded and temporarily polluted because all the stormwater arrives at one time.

Water sensitive urban design

Water sensitive urban design (WSUD) seeks to imitate the natural water balance on site before the land is built on. It slows stormwater runoff to gain natural filtration, on-site detention and infiltration. The water eventually reaches the river, lake or ocean but has been cleaned and filtered by the soil and used by plants before it gets there.

Water sensitive urban design slows stormwater runoff to gain natural filtration, on-site detention and infiltration.

The objective is to minimise impervious surfaces so that the least water flows off-site into the stormwater system. At the scale of the individual household, options such as permeable paving on driveways and footpaths, garden beds designed for infiltration (raingardens), lawns and vegetation, swales and soakwells can detain stormwater and increase percolation into the soil.

In some cases it may be advisable to place perforated pipes beneath infiltration areas to direct excess stormwater to the stormwater system. See ‘References and additional reading’ for publications on options and possible designs.

The improved aesthetics and comfort associated with more vegetation also improve habitat for native wildlife and make the area cooler in summer. It reduces the need for garden watering and decreases water bills. Also reduced are erosion and the downstream effects of stormwater pollution on nearby rivers, lakes or the ocean.

Stormwater Management in the Indian Context

Every year during the monsoons, developed cities like Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai are crippled by continuous floods. While changing the city infrastructure as a whole would be a complicated and expensive concept, stormwater management practices can reduce the burden to a great extent. This is the only sustainable way to take care of the flooding, along with the pollution.

Conclusion

India faces a long list of problems as a result of uncontrolled urbanization but stormwater and the associated pollution is one of the first steps towards a truly developed nation.

 

Water Harvesting & Conservation techniques need to apply in buildings to make them more sustainable

Fresh, clean water is a limited resource. While most of the planet is covered in water, it is salt water that can only be consumed by humans and other species after undergoing desalination, which is an expensive process. Occurrences such as droughts further limit access to clean and fresh water, meaning people need to take steps to reduce water use and save as much water as possible. In some areas of the world, access to water is limited due to contamination. People who have access to fresh water can take steps to limit their use of water to avoid waste.

The Why and How of Water Conservation

People should do their best to conserve water for three reasons. The less water used or wasted by people, the less clean water will become contaminated. In some cases, using excess amounts of water puts strain on septic and sewage systems, leading to contamination of groundwater, as untreated, dirty water seeps from the sewage system into the ground.

Water conservation reduces energy use and can even save households money. Most families pay to use water in their cities or regions. The less water a household uses, the less they have to pay each period. Appliances that use water, such as washing machines and dishwashers, also use a considerable amount of energy.

Conserving water now allows cities and regions to plan for more efficient use of the water resources in the future. If most of an area’s clean water is wasted, there will not be water for future generations to use, meaning the city will need to come up with new ways to produce clean, fresh water, which will ultimately be at the taxpayers’ expense.

What’s Water Harvesting?

Watering harvesting means capturing rain water, where it falls and capture the runoff from, catchment and streams etc. Generally, water harvesting is direct rainwater collection. This collected water could be stored for later use and recharged into the ground water again. Rain is primary water source lakes, ground water and rivers are the secondary water source.

Nowadays we totally depend on secondary water sources, we just forget that rains are the source, which feeds all other secondary sources. So, water harvesting means we recognize the rain’ value and try to use the rain water, where it falls.

How can You Harvest Water

You can harvest rainwater at your home by the below mentioned method:

Capture runoff from rooftop

Do you have any idea? that about 60,000 gallons water runoff from your roofs and goes into street, streams and then in sea water. This water is getting cleaned, filtered and provided you on payment. Why don’t you eliminate this process? You just install water harvesting system in your home and use this runoff water.

Before you capture rainwater at your home successfully, keeping the following things in your mind:

How Much & Which Quality Water You Need

You need only a few litter water drink , drinking and cooking water must be potable, whereas, laundry water should be impurities less and gray water for growing vegetables and fruits.

How to Harvest Rain Water

Rainwater could be easily collected in plastic tanks. They are easy to install and handle. They are comparatively cheap from underground tanks, but definitely take up space. For harvesting rain water you first calculate the possible rain, you can do this by getting information from Meteorological Bureau of your area. They would give you information about the average rainfall during whole month.

For instance if you have 600mm rains every year and the area of your roof is 200 square meters, and you are interested to catch the whole area for one month storage. Your tank volume must be 10,000 liters. This quantity of water will give 10,000/30 about 33 liters water per day.

How Much Experience You Need

You all can do this work easily, without any kind of experience. You would be needed only a qualified electrician to fix the electrics and a plumber for sewage purpose. Of course, for working at heights and making connections one needs good safety practices.

Be Careful about the following things:

  1. Your water should not seep on the public roadway, or on the property of your neighbor.
  2. Water gets wasted by evaporation, so proper arrangement should be done.
  3. Regular maintenance is must.
  4. Never let the gutters block, leaf-guard is best, but it is expensive.
  5. In-line-leaf is good, but they need proper and regular cleaning.
  6. Your tank must be mosquito free.
  7. If you want to drink rain water, then, keep in mind that your roof should not be zinc-alum, because aluminum is dangerous for you.
  8. You should be aware of birds and animal droppings.
  9. It must be pollution free.

Benefits of Water Harvesting:

  1. It can be used for drinking.
  2. It could be utilized for irrigation purposes.
  3. This water increases the underwater level.
  4. It keeps you urban flood.
  5. Reduce sea water entrance in coastal areas.

Reference conserve energy !

Factors that will affect and shape the Construction Industry in 2018

Construction

Real estate is the second largest employer after agriculture in India and is estimated to grow at 30 percent over the next decade. It is also estimated that this sector will get to see more non-resident Indian (NRI) investments as compared to the Indian resident investments – in both short term and long term. As per the estimation, Bangalore will be the most preferred investment destination for NRIs followed by Chennai, Ahmedabad, Delhi, Pune, Dehradun, and Goa.

The growth of real estate will be largely due to the growth of corporate environment, increasing demand for urban, semi-urban accommodations and need of co-working spaces. As 2017 is about to end, we are here with a small analysis of the trends that would be majorly responsible for reshaping the real estate industry in 2018. Scroll down to know more.

Market size

According to research by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Real estate development sector in India has had FDI equity inflows to the tune of USD 23,874.1 mn in the period 2000-2014. Also, in the period FY08-20, the market for this sector is expected to increase at a CAGR of 11.2%.

Indian real estate market is a considerable contribution to India’s GDP. With an average gross value that touches a whopping US$ 180 Billion; it is a 5-6% part of India’s GDP. Indian real estate has attracted the US $32 Billion in equity so far. It is foreseen that the market size of India will increase at 11.2% Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) in the period financial year 2008-2020. With a significant growth in hospitality, retail and commercial real estate, it will be a much-needed supply to India’s demand of infrastructure. This has also helped to establish India’s reputation as an attractive investment destination, as well as has put the Tier1 cities of India on 36th rank in Global Real Estate Transparency Index.

Government Initiatives

Till 2016 the new residential projects were lower than the products sold. With the implementation of RERA act, there will be a new level of transparency and accountability on the part of developers and is thus expected that there will be an increase in the investment from public buyers in the real estate sector. Also with the introduction of GST and Benami Property Act, the government has forced the businessmen to revamp up if they want to remain in the race. Apart from that, there is the Smart city Project which has planned to build 100 smart cities which are a big opportunity for the real estate sector. Then the government of Delhi has ordered 89 villages as urban areas, thus enabling easier operation on land policies and building of affordable houses. This provides building projects to companies like TATA, GODREJ etc.

Green Buildings

Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close cooperation of the contractor, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages.The Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. India been the Growing market and with less available natural resources will focus more on energy efficient buildings in 2018.

Developers will revamp their business models

In the last few years, the introductions of new land policies and acts have got the developers on foot. The RERA act, on one hand, has increased transparency of the projects and has given the buyers right to updated and detailed information regarding their property and construction projects. Then the Benami Property Act, Goods, and Services Tax and the demonetization Act have all shook up the older ways of running a business and forced developers to upgrade their models. These moves have perked up the market on one hand and additionally have also opened new doors to better and numerous opportunities.

 

Office sector transformation: from REIT to completion

 

The Real Estate Investment Trust is a company that mostly operates income-producing real estates. The REIT has a list coming in a few months. This list will be a big attraction to smaller investors and institutions as it provides regular dividends at smaller risks. Smaller investors will be especially profited as REIT requires 80% compulsory investment in income-producing properties and optional 20% investment in development projects. Thus smaller projects like residential complexes and duplexes will be more encouraged. Here Indian REIT is hugely profitable, with approx. 229 million sq. feet office space with REIT compliance. Even if 50% of this is done over the next year, it will account to $18.5 Billion, and so REIT is a sure growth catalyst.

The sun rises on affordable housing

Earlier the investment or even planning of building one’s own property was an expensive job. But with the new land policies as well as the new initiative undertaken by the government, residential sector has been under a huge boost. The REIT has accounted for over 80% investment in income-producing properties, which includes housing apartments and residential sectors. Approx one crore houses are planned to be built by 2019, and with further loans by National Housing Banks and investment by External Commercial borrowings, there will be a boost to the sector. The Demonetization act has leveled the prices of lands, especially in Indian metros and Tier 2 and Tier 3 cities. The Housing for All plan look feasible now

Co-working: More of India Inc. will move into ‘hybrid’ spaces

With increasing start-ups in India, co-working spaces are popping up in increasing rates to provide flexible spaces at affordable rents. Although there is limited space, this sector is improving, given the advantages of cost efficiency, enhanced productivity options for companies that want their client teams close to their respective client sites. Hence, working operators and corporate will move into a ‘hybrid’ sort of space.

Though real estate industry is an unpredictable sector when it comes to investments and benefits, these trends are likely to be seen in the coming year. Also, a lot of start-ups and SMEs will play a major role in this sector. Indian real estate industry is supposed to give a tough competition to the stock market as well. Read our next article to learn more about the better investment opportunities in the real estate and stock market.

 

Need to minimize the effect of Refrigerant on our Environment

Refrigerant

Refrigerant is a compound typically found in either a fluid or gaseous state. It readily absorbs heat from the environment and can provide refrigeration or air conditioning when combined with other components such as compressors and evaporators. If you’ve heard about the R22 refrigerant phase out in favor of R410A refrigerant, you might be especially interested to know more about how refrigerant works and what part it plays in cooling your home.

Refrigeration, including air conditioning, is necessary for life and will continue to expand worldwide. Its impact on environment is huge, even if refrigeration technologies can also be part of solutions for mitigating global warming (new sources of energy, heat pumps…). Many efforts have already been made. However, reduction in CO2 emissions and fluorinated gas emissions are challenges to be addressed on an ongoing basis.

Refrigeration is necessary

Temperature is a magnitude and a key variable in physics, chemistry and biology, and characterizes the state of matter and liquid, solid and gaseous phases, which is vital to all living beings. Thus, thanks to research and development for almost 200 years, refrigeration technologies have progressively led to the providing of goods and the setting up of services vital to mankind:

– Cryogenics: air separation for medical uses (cryosurgery, anaesthesia); petrochemical refining, steel production..; space propulsion fuels, superconductivity for large research instruments, energy (thermonuclear fusion…), medical applications (scanners..), transport and distribution of natural gas or hydrogen, manufacturing of semi-conductors, sequestration of CO2, conservation of species…

– Other health uses: preservation of cells, tissues, organs, embryos… surgery and operating theatres, manufacturing and transport of drugs, vaccines..

– Air conditioning: vehicles, living areas, integrated systems (heating and cooling) with heat pumps, offices and factories, particularly in hot climates but also for technologies (electronic components, computer technology, data centres, biotechnology)…

– Food: manufacturing (texturation, formulation, freeze-drying, fermentation, concentration and separation), storage, transport, commercialization, domestic refrigerators. – Energy and environment applications: cryopreservation of genetic resources, capture and underground storage of CO2, heat pumps, new energies…

– Public works, leisure activities….
Moreover, these applications will continue to expand not only because they are needed for our whole current way of life (e.g. air conditioning for data centres and computer technology…) but also because they are necessary for life itself. Needs in terms of health will dramatically increase:
– according to the FAO1, about 1 billion people are undernourished.
The population is predicted to rise from about 7 billion now to probably a little more than 9 billion people in 2050.2 The global food energy intake per person is increasing too. The global food supply must increase considerably in order to achieve global food security in an equitable manner. The most commonly cited solutions in order to raise production are: i) expansion of the quantity of arable land; ii) higher crop frequency (often through irrigation); and iii) increased crop yields thanks to improved agricultural production technology. The lack of arable land along with limited water resources in many parts of the world is likely to hamper the first two solutions. Therefore, increasing agricultural production alone may prove insufficient to address food security and safety. Greater emphasis on a holistic solution, that encompasses the reduction of post-harvest losses, is an additional sustainable way of increasing food availability. Greater use of refrigeration technologies would ensure better worldwide nutrition, in terms of both quantity and quality. Foodstuffs of animal and plant origin are highly perishable and can host pathogens. Significant causes of food borne diseases and spoilage are bacterial contamination, survival and growth. The use of refrigeration substantially reduces bacterial growth in foods. A study indicates that annually, an estimated 1777 people die every year from known pathogens, out of a total of 5000 deaths from all food – borne diseases in the USA. Analysis of data on causes of foodborne illnesses suggests that over 90% of these illnesses are at least partly associated with poor temperature control. Global food production comprises roughly one third of perishable products requiring preservation. In 2003, out of a total global food production (agricultural products, fish, meat products and dairy products) of 5500 million tonnes, it was estimated that only 400 million tonnes were preserved thanks to refrigeration (chilled or frozen), whilst at least 1800 million tonnes required refrigeration.4 This results in huge losses.

– the population, both in developed and in most developing countries, will become older, more urban and will need better food safety and moreover more health care and products, more air conditioning… and thus more refrigeration equipment.

The huge development which is forecast must be sustainable.

Refrigeration and air conditioning have an important impact on the environment

On the stratospheric ozone layer More than 90% of refrigeration equipment relies on vapour compression using refrigerants and this figure will not change in the near future: other technologies do not generally have enough efficiency. Chlorinated refrigerants (chlorofluorocarbons – CFCs, and to a lesser extent, hydro chlorofluorocarbons – HCFCs) contribute to the depletion of stratospheric ozone if released into the atmosphere due to equipment leaks or if refrigerants are not properly recovered when disposal of the equipment takes place. CFCs and HCFCs are gradually being phased out thanks to the Montreal Protocol. Current measurements of the ozone layer show overall stability and probable recovery to the previous level around 2060. They are often replaced by hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) which do not deplete the ozone layer but are potent greenhouse gases, as are HCFCs, when released into the atmosphere. CFCs were also greenhouse gases and their global warming potential was much higher. The impact of the Montreal Protocol is thus also positive regarding global warming. However, it is not enough.

On global warming

Refrigeration and air conditioning have an impact on global warming in three ways:
– release into the atmosphere of CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs. The contribution of these refrigerants represents between 1-2% of greenhouse gas emissions. It has been reduced considerably since 1987 (signature of the Montreal Protocol).

Rectifying the effect of Refrigeration  – Refrigerant Reclamation

Through extensive chemical and mechanical processes, used refrigerants are “reclaimed” to meet stringent purity levels and then they re-enter the marketplace for use in consumer or industrial applications.  It is important to note that refrigerant reclamation is different than refrigerant recycling.  The recycling process simply removes contaminants so the refrigerant can be reused in the same equipment or in equipment owned by the same individual; recycled refrigerant is not eligible for resale. During reclamation, extensive filtering, drying, distillation, and chemical processes strip the refrigerant of impurities to ensure the gas meets or exceeds ARI-700 purity standards, which are the same standards required of virgin refrigerant.

 

How we can reclaim a Refrigerant?

Refrigerant reclamation must be performed by an EPA-certified refrigerant reclaimer.  These reclaimers collect recovered refrigerant, reclaim the gases, and sell them to HVACR professionals.  Many reclaimers purchase these used refrigerants, which can lead to opportunities for profit.

While there are many providers who purchase recovered refrigerant, not all of them are reclaimers.  Ultimately, your refrigerant goes to an EPA-certified reclaimer.  Going straight to the source eliminates the middleman and usually results in higher payouts.  In addition to offering payment, your reclaimer should provide you with paperwork that documents that your recovered refrigerant was handled according to EPA regulations. In India it is developing day by day and now there is a awareness regarding this !

 

Why Reclamation Matters

As the EPA continues to phase certain refrigerants out of production, it is more important than ever for the industry to embrace reclamation to ensure current and future customer needs are met.  Industry experts predict that the demand for these refrigerants will outpace their supply.  Now is the time to recover and reclaim refrigerant.

AHRI also works with many participants in the industry to ensure that the standards that reclaimers are expected to achieve are well defined and support the highest level of integrity so technicians can be confident in the materials they are using and installing.

Before reclamation can begin the material must be recovered and the EPA defines that as “Recover refrigerant means to remove refrigerant in any condition from an appliance and to store it in an external container without necessarily testing or processing it in any way.”

Some circumstances where the material is being put back into the system it was removed and not being transferred to a new system the material can be recycled and the EPA defines that as “Recycle refrigerant means to extract refrigerant from an appliance and clean refrigerant for reuse without meeting all of the requirements for reclamation. In general, recycled refrigerant is refrigerant that is cleaned using oil separation and single or multiple passes through devices, such as replaceable core filter-driers, which reduce moisture, acidity, and particulate matter. These procedures are usually implemented at the field job site.”

Hence we need to use the Refrigerant Reclamation process to low down the use of gases and also work to bring alternatives for refrigerants.

Need for Bricks modification practice to improve the quality of Construction

Following China, India is the second largest manufacturer of bricks across the globe. No wonder, this very building material holds so much of importance in the Indian architecture. India alone produces over 10 percent of the bricks which are globally produced and has about 1,40,000 brick-making enterprises, who account for 250 billion brick masonry units (Source). This industry also employs around 15 million workers and consumes annually over 35 million tons of coal. Today there are many other options available to choose from when it comes to building materials, but bricks have always been one obvious choice. This is industry is surely growing as the demand for Bricks never declines due to the fast-economic growth, urbanization, and prosperity. This blog aims to explain how this legendary building material – Bricks, are made. Yes, let’s simplify it for you – The Brick Making Process In India.

Demystified – Brick Making Process In India

The brick making process typically consists of the following steps.

  1. Preparation Of Raw Materials

In this first stage, the soil is mined in steps and then laid on a leveled ground where it is cleaned of all sorts of impurities (like vegetation matter, stones, pebbles etc). Once the material is clear from all impurities it is left exposed to weather for few months, this process is known as weathering. After this, the soil is mixed with other material to prepare good brick earth. Post raw materials are mixed, it is tempered in a pug mill by thoroughly breaking, watering and kneading it.

 

Source

  1. Shaping Or Moulding

Initially, moulds used for shaping bricks were made of wood, and the makers used sand to ensure the bricks didn’t stick to the moulds. But today there are many other options available for this process. Depending on the quality of the end product, bricks are moulded in many different ways. The most common methods for shaping or moulding bricks are hand moulding and machine moulding.

  • Hand Moulding – The tempered is clay injected into a mould in such manner that it fills in all the corners. Extra clay is removed using a frame with wire or with a wooden strike. Once proper shape is ready, the mould is lifted and what remains on the ground is raw brick.
  • Machine Moulding – This method is used where large numbers of bricks are manufactured. Essentially there are two different types of machines used for moulding bricks:
  • Plastic Clay Machines – Here the clay is in a plastic state and it is forced into rectangular openings of a size which is equal to the length and breadth of the bricks. Further, these are cut into strips of a similar width of the bricks with the help of wires in frames.
  • Dry Clay Machines– Here dry clay is condensed to powder which is filled into moulds by the help of machines. These are then exposed to high pressure to form hard and well-shaped bricks.

 

Source

  1. Drying

Drying is one of the most important steps in the brick making process. Thinking why are bricks dried? The main reason is to avoid cracks, it is important to understand that damp bricks if taken directly for burning result in cracking. Drying bricks ensure that inadequate moisture is removed before the burning process. Also drying increases the overall strength of raw bricks making them ready to be stacked on greater heights in the kiln for the burning process without damaging it.

Usually, drying is done by simply placing the bricks in sheds which have open sides, this ensures free air circulation and protection from extreme weather conditions. The drying process of bricks varies from 7 to 14 days.

 

Source

  1. Firing or Burning

After drying, the bricks are fired to high temperatures in furnaces. Burning is another very important step in the brick making process. Bricks in India are burnt by two distinct methods listed below:

  • Pazawah Or Clamp Burning
  • Bhatta Or Kiln Burning

Talking about clamps now, this is a field kiln which is built from the green bricks which would be fired. Clamps vary in size and shape and are carefully oriented with respect to the direction of the wind. Once a clamp constructed and laid out, it needs to be insulated.

The process of firing takes place in several steps. The first step is pre-heating or water-smoking which removes the leftover water from the drying process. After this process comes the stage of firing, here clay bricks vitrify through a chemical process. Temperatures in the clamp must remain constant during this stage to complete vitrification. Cooling stage is the final one, here the temperature needs to be slow and steady.

 

Source

Brick Production In India

The major brick producing states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Punjab. These states together account for around 65 % of the entire production in the country.

The scale and production of bricks in India varies across India mainly due to the availability of fuel and soil. Even today, traditional techniques are used to produce bricks, and the process involves the use of inefficient methods and manual labor. The manufacturing process of bricks is dependent on seasons as the process of drying and firing are still carried out under open air.

The brick kilns are located around main cities and towns, these clusters have an annual production capacity of over two to ten million bricks. Because of the seasonal dependencies, these kilns operate only for six to eight months in a year.  During the monsoon season, the production process literally comes to a virtual halt. In the Northern mountain regions, (like Jammu, Srinagar, and Dehradun) brick production is very limited and low.

Conclusion

The building construction in India is expected to grow at a rate of 6.6 percent from 2005 – 2030. Over the coming years, the demand for building materials will also rise exponentially. Also, in the past two decades, many alternatives like concrete blocks, FaL-G blocks (fly ash-lime-gypsum) and AAC (autoclaved aerated concrete) have come up. While these alternatives might cost you less, think about what it would give back to the environment. Think Green and Build Green!

Impact & Alternatives of River Sand

River Sand

River Sand or the Bajri we refer to the sand that is used in the Construction purposes. Today it is the most required material for the construction industry, is been widely used and utilised all over the world. The question arises is that from where does this BAJRI comes ? The River sand is the Sand is deposited in river beds, so the sand which we are using is actually from the dry river or from the banks of river. Presently in states like Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka sand supply is becoming a mafia because sand supplies are limited. River waters are now behind dams due to which the sand does not get continually replenished like before. Riverine habitats get destroyed as mechanical dredgers are used.

Have we ever thought of the consequences for this ?

How does it impacts on our Environment – Instream mining can have other costly effects beyond the immediate mine sites. Many hectares of fertile streamside land are lost annually, as well as valuable timber resources and wildlife habitats in the riparian areas. Degraded stream habitats result in lost of fisheries productivity, biodiversity, and recreational potential. Severely degraded channels may lower land and aesthetic values.

All species require specific habitat conditions to ensure long-term survival. Native species in streams are uniquely adapted to the habitat conditions that existed before humans began large-scale alterations. These have caused major habitat disruptions that favored some species over others and caused overall declines in biological diversity and productivity. In most streams and rivers, habitat quality is strongly linked to the stability of channel bed and banks. Unstable stream channels are inhospitable to most aquatic species.
Factors that increase or decrease sediment supply often destabilize bed and banks and result in dramatic channel readjustments. For example, human activities that accelerate stream bank erosion, such as riparian forest clearing or instream mining, cause stream banks to become net sources of sediment that often have severe consequences for aquatic species. Anthropogenic activities that artificially lower stream bed elevation cause bed instabilities that result in a net release of sediment in the local vicinity. Unstable sediments simplify and, therefore, degrade stream habitats for many aquatic species. Few species benefit from these effects.

The most important effects of instream sand mining on aquatic habitats are bed degradation and sedimentation, which can have substantial negative effects on aquatic life. The stability of sand-bed and gravel-bed streams depends on a delicate balance between stream flow, sediment supplied from the watershed, and channel form. Mining-induced changes in sediment supply and channel form disrupt channel and habitat development processes. Furthermore, movement of unstable substrates results in downstream sedimentation of habitats. The affected distance depends on the intensity of mining, particles sizes, stream flows, and channel morphology.

The complete removal of vegetation and destruction of the soil profile destroys habitat both above and below the ground as well as within the aquatic ecosystem, resulting in the reduction in fauna populations.

 

Channel widening causes shallowing of the streambed, producing braided flow or subsurface intergravel flow in riffle areas, hindering movement of fishes between pools. Channel reaches become more uniformly shallow as deep pools fill with gravel and other sediments, reducing habitat complexity, riffle-pool structure, and numbers of large predatory fishes.
Apart from threatening bridges, sand mining transforms the riverbeds into large and deep pits; as a result, the groundwater table drops leaving the drinking water wells on the embankments of these rivers dry. Bed degradation from in stream mining lowers the elevation of stream flow and the floodplain water table which in turn can eliminate water table-dependent woody vegetation in riparian areas, and decrease wetted periods in riparian wetlands. For locations close to the sea, saline water may intrude into the fresh waterbody.

Value of construction industry grew at staggering rate of 15.10 per cent annually even in the economic slowdown and has contributed to 7.5-8.5 per cent of the country’s GDP (at current prices) for the past eight years. Thus, it is becoming increasingly embarrassing for people like me who talk about greening the industry to have no practical answer to this very critical question. Bigger question is: does the scientific community have the answer? And the answer I found to my delight is: yes, they do.

So let us see what are the alternatives for Sand that we can consider for construction purposes :

Copper slag

Presently, worldwide, about 33 million tonnes of copper slag is generated annually with India contributing 6-6.5 million tonnes. Khalifa S Al Jabri of Oman in his findings published in the internationally referred journals such as Cement and Concrete Composites and Construction and Building Materials in 2006 recommends that 50 per cent copper slag can be used as replacement of sand in order to obtain concrete with good strength and durability requirements. Back in India, a study carried out by the Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) has also shown that copper slag can be used as a partial replacement for sand as fine aggregate in concrete up to 40 per cent in pavement grade concrete without any loss of cohesiveness and the compressive and flexural strength of such concretes is about 20 per cent higher than that of conventional cement concrete of the same grade.

Granulated blast furnace slag

According to the report of the Working Group on Cement Industry for the 12th five year plan, around 10 million tonnes blast furnace slag is currently being generated in the country from iron and steel industry. In of the studies about this states that the data obtained from his research shows that the compressive strength of cement mortar increases as the replacement level of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) increases. He further concludes that from the test results it is clear that GBFS sand can be used as an alternative to natural sand from the point of view of strength. Use of GBFS up to 75 per cent can be recommended of sand.

Bottom ash

India is currently producing in excess of 100 million tonnes of coal ash. Out of the total ash produced in any thermal power plant, approximately 15 -20 per cent is bottom ash and the rest is fly ash. Fly ash has found many takers but bottom ash still continues to pollute the environment with no safe disposal mechanism on offer. In of the studies about this states that the mechanical properties of special concrete made with 30 per cent replacement of natural sand with washed bottom ash by weight has an optimum usage in concrete in order to get a favourable strength and good strength development pattern over the increment ages.

Quarry dust

About 20 to 25 per cent of the total production in each crusher unit is left out as the waste material-quarry dust. In of the studies about this states that the ideal percentage of the replacement of sand with the quarry dust is 55 per cent to 75 per cent in case of compressive strength. He further says that if combined with fly ash (another industrial waste), 100 per cent replacement of sand can be achieved. The use of fly ash in concrete is desirable because of benefits such as useful disposal of a byproduct, increased workability, reduction of cement consumption, increased sulfate resistance, increased resistance to alkali-silica reaction and decreased permeability. However, the use of fly ash leads to a reduction in early strength of concrete. Therefore, the concurrent use of quarry dust and fly ash in concrete will lead to the benefits of using such materials being added and some of the undesirable effects being negated.

Foundry sand

India ranks fourth in terms of total foundry production (7.8 million tonnes) according to the 42nd Census of World Casting Production of 2007. Foundry sand which is very high in silica is regularly discarded by the metal industry. Currently, there is no mechanism for its disposal, but international studies say that up to 30 per cent foundry sand can be utilized for economical and sustainable development of concrete.

Construction and demolition waste

There is no documented quantification of amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste being generated in India. Municipal Corporation of Delhi says it is collecting 4,000 tonnes of C&D waste daily from the city which amounts to almost 1.5 million tonnes of waste annually in the city of Delhi alone. Even if we discount all the waste which is illegally dump around the city, 1.5 million of C&D waste if recycled can significantly substitute demand for natural sand by Delhi. Recycled sand and aggregate from C&D waste is said to have 10-15 per cent lesser strength then normal concrete and can be safely used in non-structural applications like flooring and filling. Delhi already has a recycling unit in place and plans to open more to handle its disposal problem.

M-Sand
Manufactured sand is an alternative for river sand. Due to fast growing construction industry, the demand for sand has increased tremendously, causing deficiency of suitable river sand in most part of the word.
Due to the depletion of good quality river sand for the use of construction, the use of manufactured sand has been increased. Another reason for use of M-Sand is its availability and transportation cost.
Since manufactured sand can be crushed from hard granite rocks, it can be readily available at the nearby place, reducing the cost of transportation from far-off river sand bed.
Thus, the cost of construction can be controlled by the use of manufactured sand as an alternative material for construction. The other advantage of using M-Sand is, it can be dust free, the sizes of m-sand can be controlled easily so that it meets the required grading for the given construction.
” it is well graded in the required proportion.
” It does not contain organic and soluble compound that affects the setting time and properties of cement, thus the required strength of concrete can be maintained.
” It does not have the presence of impurities such as clay, dust and silt coatings, increase water requirement as in the case of river sand which impair bond between cement paste and aggregate. Thus, increased quality and durability of concrete.
” M-Sand is obtained from specific hard rock (granite) using the state-of-the-art International technology, thus the required property of sand is obtained.
” M-Sand is cubical in shape and is manufactured using technology like High Carbon steel hit rock and then ROCK ON ROCK process which is synonymous to that of natural process undergoing in river sand information.
” Modern and imported machines are used to produce M-Sand to ensure required grading zone for the sand.

Benefits of Alternatives –
Size, shape, texture play an important role in workability of concrete. With more surface area of sand, the demand for cement and water increases to bond the sand with coarse aggregates.
The control over these physical properties of manufacturing sand make the concrete require less amount of water and provide higher workable concrete. The less use of water also helps in increasing the strength of concrete, less effort for mixing and placement of concrete, and thus increases productivity of construction activities at site.
Construction defects during placement and post-concreting such as segregation, bleeding, honeycombing, voids and capillarity in concrete gets reduced by the use of M-Sand as it has optimum initial and final setting time as well as excellent fineness.
As discussed above, since usage of M-Sand has increased durability, higher strength, reduction in segregation, permeability, increased work ability, decreased post-concrete defects, it proves to be economical as a construction material replacing river sand. It can also save transportation cost of river sand in many cases.

Construction Manager : An Helpful Hand in Managing a Quality Construction

Construction Manager

The construction industry is in a constant state of alteration, and those who want to be in the know about what is happening in every corner of the industry need to be entangled in to the right resources. Just ceasing us from being faded of the inscrutable fact of right resource, the first and foremost brooding is concerned to Construction manager. Construction manager is the backbone of all the innovations would it be Burj Khalifa or great wall of China, the crucial role for their innovative design is unique approach of its construction manager.

Construction managers are responsible for setting and keeping schedules, monitoring finances, and making certain that everybody is doing what they should, every day. They help ensure that the workplace is free of safety hazards and deal with the various working relationships that exist on a job site. Construction managers oversee and lead a range of building projects from induction to perish.

Construction Manager vs. General Contractor
While the terms “construction manager” and “general contractor” are often used interchangeably, there are distinct differences between them. Typically, construction managers are involved in a given project from initiation to perish. They assist clients with initial planning, along with the selection of the project’s general contractor and architect. In some cases, however, construction managers do serve in a separate capacity as the general contractor.

Responsibilities of a Construction Manager
There are certain sort of works that are performed by construction managers. These include:

Quality management – Construction projects quite often involve a number of contractors and subcontractors. One of the most important jobs of the construction manager is making certain everyone is doing quality work and not cutting any corners along the way. Quality management is enhancing day by day. Nowadays it is more prefferd to have a manager who has done certification courses related to quality control like Six sigma. Six Sigma is a statistical tool that patronizes us in questing out the root causes of failure of any task and assist us in smooth and easy completion of task.

Cost management – A good construction manager is constantly on top of costs and makes the necessary adjustments when unexpected complications or issues arise. He works on the aim of high customer satisfaction with high profit to the company.
Safety management. Construction managers need to be able to identify and eliminate possible safety hazards for the good of everyone on the job site.

Contract administration – It is the job of the construction manager to ensure that every provision of the contract is being met and that all parties involved are happy. Beyond everything else, construction managers need to keep all parties involved well informed throughout the whole project. It includes the client, the architect, and any contractor or subcontractor involved. If issues arrive, the manager must be in the position to deal with them immediately. So if you are opting to be an innovative construction manager one need to be more specific and knowledgeable towards the work because it not merely checking only the smooth functioning of work one should be aware of statistical tools, mathematics, construction software and architecture but where there is will there is way. So keep on commanding on all basic and technical terms of construction one can easily be an excellent construction manager.

Parameters which decide salary of construction manager :
1. Experience :- In almost any profession, the more experience you have, the more you can realistically expect to earn. If you have more than 10 years’ experience in construction and have worked your way up the ranks to your present position, you could find yourself being offered a better salary package than someone who is fresh out of college with minimal real-world experience.
2. Education :- Experience can get you far when it comes to getting a good pay rate, but experience plus education can boost you into that median range much more quickly.
Do you have a degree in construction management? Numerous online programs can get you there while you continue to work and build your reputation in the industry. Once you earn your diploma, you can reasonably expect to be offered a better starting salary than someone without a degree, and, really, most well-paying management positions will require it anyway.
3. Number of Subordinates :- The number of people you will be managing also has a direct effect on what you can expect to be offered. If you are applying to a small startup, you will be on the low end of the pay scale based on the company’s annual revenues and a host of other factors.

A larger, more established company with more employees will proceed you a better salary every time, but it will also expect and demand a certain level of education, experience, and proven ability to handle managing large numbers of subordinates effectively.
Econaur team is always in assistance to make excellent construction manager.

Article By : Himanshu Gupta (Marketing & Research Intern), Econaur Build Solutions

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