Understanding the working & the need for Waste Water Management in India

Indian Cities do have Sewage Treatment Plants in India. In fact, After China, India is the only country which is working on the water treatment activities very efficiently and effectively. We all know, sewage water is the result of domestic activities, natural activities like rain and industrial activities. Regular flow of infected water may increase the flow of sewage which needs to clean. As if the water flows up on the roads, it haphazard the regular commutation.

Usually waste water is thrown over the roads or may be stored in big tanks which may recycled for further construction and agriculture work.

What is Waste Water? How is it generated?

Waste water is the water that emerges after fresh water is used by human beings for domestic, commercial and industrial use. This document will restrict itself only to the waste water generated due to domestic use.

By and large,it is fresh water that is used for a variety of domestic uses such as washing, bathing & flushing toilets. Washing involves the washing of utensils used in cooking, washing vegetables and other food items, bathing, washing hands, washing clothes.

The water that emerges after these uses contains, vegetable matter, oils used in cooking, oil in hair, detergents, dirt from floors that have been washed , soap used in bathing along with oils/greases washed from the human body. This water is referred to as “ Grey Water” or sullage.

Water used to flush toilets to evacuate human excreta is called “ Black Water” or Sewage.

Grey water is easier to purify as compared to black water, i.e sewage. However, the practice predominantly followed in India is to combine these two wastes to discharge into a public sewer or into a sewage treatment plant in a residential community/ building that has no access to a public sewer.

What are the constituents of waste water (sewage) ?

Waste water contains all the dissolved minerals present in the fresh water that was used and which became waste water as well as all the other contaminants mentioned above. These are proteins, carbohydrates, oils & fats. These contaminants are degradable and use up oxygen in the degradation process.

Therefore, these are measured in terms of their demand for oxygen which can be established by certain tests in a laboratory. This is called Bio Degradable Oxygen demand(BOD). Some chemicals which also contaminate the water during the process of domestic use also degrade and use oxygen and the test done to establish this demand which is called Chemical Oxgen demand (COD).

Typically a domestic sewage would contain approximately 300 to 450 mg/litre of BOD and COD on an average. Sewage also contains coliform bacteria (e coli) which is harmful to human beings if water containing such bacteria is consumed(drunk). E coli is bacteria that thrives in the intestines of warm blooded creatures such as humans, animals and birds.

Another feature of sewage is the high level of Total Suspended Solids (TSS). This is what gives the sewage a black colour ,hence the name “ black water”. If sewage is allowed to turn septic, it then also has a strong, unpleasant odour.

what is the need for treating waste water ?

Much of the water used for domestic purposes does not require potable ( suitable for drinking) water quality. For instance, water used for flushing toilets or for washing floors, yards or roads & gardening does not require to be potable. In a scenario where fresh water is getting increasingly scarce and when enormous volumes of sewage generated in the country are not being treated ,but goes unchecked to pollute fresh water from lakes, rivers and the ground water table, it must be treated.

Discharging untreated sewage into any drains other than an underground sewerage system, or into open land , is an offence and invites prosecution under the laws of all Pollution Control Boards in the country.

Sewage must necessarily be treated correctly and then re-used/re-cycled for various uses that do not need potable water quality. Recycling/re-using treated sewage can reduce fresh water requirements very substantially, by almost 50-60%.

In a scenario where fresh water availability itself is increasingly in doubt this is critical.

How can treated sewage be re-used/re-cycled ?

This requires plumbing to be laid so as to serve two sets of storage tanks on the roofs of any residential/commercial building. One set of storage tanks will be used to receive and store fresh water which will flow through plumbing laid to take it to bathrooms and kitchens where it can be used for drinking, cooking, washing & bathing.

The second set of tanks will receive treated sewage which will be connected by plumbing to all the flush tanks in toilets and to other points where the water can be used for washing yards, floors and also for gardening.

How is waste water treated ?

Sullage (grey water) which is mentioned above, if collected in a storage tank separately can be treated by aerating it to prevent it from turning septic, and then dosed with a coagulant, chlorinated and then subjected to filtration by pressure sand filtration followed by activated carbon filtration and stored in a separate overhead tank or tanks from which it can be used for flushing toilets and other uses where fresh or potable water is not required.

However, the current practice is to combine sullage and sewage (black water) and treat the mixture in an STP (Sewage treatment plant). This practice has come in predominantly to reduce the cost of construction of two separate plants and because space is now at a premium in any building.

why not consider grey water treatment seriously in spite of the extra space it requires ?

From the point of view of a resident it is worth considering as it enhances the water security of the resident. A builder’s priority is totally different, since the space taken up by the treatment system can not be ‘sold’ to a buyer, he will just not consider it, instead the builder will combine greywater with sewage in an STP. This enables the builder to save costs.

However if looked at from the residents’ view point, a separate grey water treatment system being easier to operate provides a facility to ‘fall back on’ when the STP fails.

 

How can common problems in Water water treatment plant can be avoided and/or resolved?

  • Modern designs for STPs which are modular are available from reputed companies which are in the field of water and waste water treatment. Such companies have standardized designs where,for instance an STP to handle 150 KLD ( 150,000 Litres per day) of sewage can be made up of 3 modular STPs each of 50KLD capacity. Such an installation would be able to handle the initial lower load of sewage with one module in operation with remaining modules being commissioned/started up as the sewage volume increases. Such a modular approach also makes it possible to handle sewage in the case of a break-down of the STP as it is extremely rare for all modules to break-down together. In short, there is a stand-by always available. For several years now a few companies have been offering microbial agents which can help overcome these problems if these microbial agents are added to the incoming sewage. Go in for Modular STPs & use microbial agents regularly.

 

  •  It is equally important to know and be able to control the volume of fresh water used in a community so that it does not exceed the design capacity of an STP. This involves installing water meters at all crucial points to measure water flow (consumption) & thereafter taking action to curb excess consumption of fresh water to prevent overloading the STP. Control excess consumption of fresh water and thereby prevent overloading of the STP

 

  • Builders are not expected to be experts in water or sewage treatment plant design, manufacture etc. They can however have tie-ups with reputed environmental engineering companies with sound technical experience and a proven track record, to make up for their lack of knowledge. This seldom happens since a builder’s interest ends with selling a completed project and then handing over the project to the Resident’s Association as soon as possible, often without even demonstrating actual, successful operation of the water infrastructure. Most builders link up with small, obscure local companies with inadequate knowledge and expertise in waste and water treatment,but will put up something for an extremely low price. The result is poor/ wrong operation of an STP leading to untreated sewage and unpleasant odours from it. Ensure supply of an STP from a reputed supplier and entrust operation & maintenance to a well trained professional team.

 

  • One of the major reasons for STPs not working properly is the fluctuations in input loads. Flow of sewage in a residential community is never uniform. It varies with peak flows in the morning (residents getting ready to go to work), very low or almost no flows later in the day with another peak in the evening. Raw sewage is collected in a sewage balancing tank(mentioned above) which should be sized to hold at least 6 to 8 hours flow of sewage. This ensures that the sewage collected in the balancing tank is homogenized, thereby avoiding input fluctuations in input load on the STP. Do not compromise on the size of a raw sewage balancing tank.

 

  • High noise levels from an STP are due to the operation of electric motor driven equipment such as pumps, air blowers, air compressors, etc. Old designs/makes of pumps, blowers , compressors , etc are still available at very low prices in the market and these are used in most of the STPs that have been put up. The noise levels of such equipment is very high as compared to modern, world class pumps and rotary motor driven equipment now available in India. These modern makes are almost noiseless and extremely efficient. The old designs are also the cause of high energy consumption in addition to very high noise levels. As per the laws in force in India, the noise level permitted in a residential area is 55 dB (dB= decibels of sound) during day time,i.e from 6:00 am to 10:00 pm and 45 dB during night time(10:00pm to 6:00 am).As compared to these limits, the actual noise levels are likely to be as high as 75 dB or higher. To reduce noise levels and high energy consumption, it will be necessary to replace most of the critical rotary motor driven equipment with the latest noiseless high efficiency equipment. Here it is advisable to choose a reputed company with an established reputation in sewage/waste water treatment to buy an STP. Such companies have constantly improved their designs to reduce the foot prints (space occupied) of their equipment and reduction in the power consumption of power by a very appreciable amount. Unfortunately, residents have no say in this as they face up to this crucial fact when it is too late as the STP has been ordered probably even before the residents bought a home in the property.

Population growth and particularly the development of megacities is making SWM in India a major problem. The current situation is that India relies on inadequate waste infrastructure, the informal sector and waste dumping. There are major issues associated with public participation in waste management and there is generally a lack of responsibility towards waste in the community. There is a need to cultivate community awareness and change the attitude of people towards waste, as this is fundamental to developing proper and sustainable waste management systems. Sustainable and economically viable waste management must ensure maximum resource extraction from waste, combined with safe disposal of residual waste through the development of engineered landfill and waste-to-energy facilities. India faces challenges related to waste policy, waste technology selection and the availability of appropriately trained people in the waste management sector. Until these fundamental requirements are met, India will continue to suffer from poor waste management and the associated impacts on public health and the environment.

What exactly Energy audit is and the benefits Involved with it

A Energy Audit for a Building is a service where the energy efficiency of a Building is evaluated by a person using professional equipment (such as blower doors and infrared cameras), with the aim to suggest the best ways to improve energy efficiency in heating and cooling the house.

An energy audit of a home may involve recording various characteristics of the building envelope including the walls, ceilings, floors, doors, windows, and skylights. For each of these components the area and resistance to heat flow (R-value) is measured or estimated. The leakage rate or infiltration of air through the building envelope is of concern, both of which are strongly affected by window construction and quality of door seals such as weather stripping. The goal of this exercise is to quantify the building’s overall thermal performance. The audit may also assess the efficiency, physical condition, and programming of mechanical systems such as the heating, ventilation, air conditioning equipment, and thermostat.

A energy audit may include a written report estimating energy use given local climate criteria, thermostat settings, roof overhang, and solar orientation. This could show energy use for a given time period, say a year, and the impact of any suggested improvements per year. The accuracy of energy estimates are greatly improved when the homeowner’s billing history is available showing the quantities of electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, or other energy sources consumed over a one or two-year period.

Some of the greatest effects on energy use are user behaviour, climate, and age of the Building. An energy audit may therefore include an interview of the Building owner to understand their patterns of use over time. The energy billing history from the local utility company can be calibrated using heating degree day and cooling degree day data obtained from recent, local weather data in combination with the thermal energy model of the building. Advances in computer-based thermal modelling can take into account many variables affecting energy use.

A Energy audit is often used to identify cost effective ways to improve the comfort and efficiency of buildings. In addition, homes may qualify for energy efficiency grants from central government.

Recently, the improvement of smartphone technology has enabled homeowners to perform relatively sophisticated energy audits. This technique has been identified as a method to accelerate energy efficiency improvements.

During an Energy Audit Equipments & instruments that are required are ultrasonic flow meter, anemometers, lux meters, DP manometers, temperature sensors, power analyzer and HOBO loggers to work at multiple sites simultaneously. We perform energy audit services for all types of HVAC systems, chiller plants, boiler plants, steam systems, compressed air pneumatic systems, refrigeration systems, lighting and electrical systems.

An energy audit is recommended to determine the energy consumption associated with a facility and the potential savings associated with that energy consumption.

From a general point of view, an energy audit provides enormous benefits in different areas:

  • It helps reduce energy costs in your facility.
  • With a reduction in production costs, the competitiveness of your company will be improved.
  • It helps reduce the dependence on foreign energy sources.
  • It helps reduce environmental damage and pollution.
  • It can increase the security of your energy supply.
  • It can reduce the consumption of natural resources.
  • It can reduce damage to the environment associated with the exploitation of resources.
  • It helps reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emissions.

At a particular level, among the major benefits of doing an energy audit are:

  • It helps you to lower energy bills.
  • It enables you to increase the comfort of those in the facility.
  • It helps you to increase the life span of the equipment in your facility.
  • It discovers any unaccounted consumption that may exist at the facility.

In summary, an energy audit can identify energy consumption and energy costs of the facility and it can evolve over time to develop measures to eliminate waste, maximize efficiency and optimize supply energy.

The energy audit affects three key factors:

  • profitability through optimization of energy expenditure
  • productivity through optimization of equipment and processes
  • performance, thanks to the rationalization of energy use.
Indoor Air Pollution

Impact of Indoor Air Pollution in Buildings & need to improve the Indoor Air Quality

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. Understanding and controlling common pollutants indoors can help reduce your risk of indoor health concerns.

Health effects from indoor air pollutants may be experienced soon after exposure or, possibly, years later.

Immediate Effects

Some health effects may show up shortly after a single exposure or repeated exposures to a pollutant. These include irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, headaches, dizziness, and fatigue. Such immediate effects are usually short-term and treatable. Sometimes the treatment is simply eliminating the person’s exposure to the source of the pollution, if it can be identified. Soon after exposure to some indoor air pollutants, symptoms of some diseases such as asthma may show up, be aggrevated or worsened.

The likelihood of immediate reactions to indoor air pollutants depends on several factors including age and preexisting medical conditions. In some cases, whether a person reacts to a pollutant depends on individual sensitivity, which varies tremendously from person to person. Some people can become sensitized to biological or chemical pollutants after repeated or high level exposures.

Certain immediate effects are similar to those from colds or other viral diseases, so it is often difficult to determine if the symptoms are a result of exposure to indoor air pollution. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the time and place symptoms occur. If the symptoms fade or go away when a person is away from the area, for example, an effort should be made to identify indoor air sources that may be possible causes. Some effects may be made worse by an inadequate supply of outdoor air coming indoors or from the heating, cooling or humidity conditions prevalent indoors.

Why are people suddenly talking about IAQ?

The reason is indoor air quality in India; especially Delhi has become very poor. Over a million people in India die every year because of indoor air pollution, among st the highest in the world. Unlike many western countries, India does not have any norm for indoor air pollution, which mandates emission norms for home appliances such as refrigerators, air-conditioners and bread toasters and a limit beyond which dirty air inside homes can be bad for one's health. The World Health Organisation (WHO) warned that healthier homes and workplaces could prevent around 1 million deaths, globally, a year, and explicitly singled out indoor air quality as a factor.

Factors Affecting Indoor Air Pollution

Much of the building fabric, its furnishings and equipment, its occupants and their activities produce pollution. In a well functioning building, some of these pollutants will be directly exhausted to the outdoors and some will be removed as outdoor air enters the building and replaces the air inside. The air outside may also contain contaminants which will be brought inside in this process. This air exchange is brought about by the mechanical introduction of outdoor air (outdoor air ventilation rate), the mechanical exhaust of indoor air, and the air exchanged through the building envelope (infiltration and exfiltration).

Pollutants inside can travel through the building as air flows from areas of higher atmospheric pressure to areas of lower atmospheric pressure. Some of these pathways are planned and deliberate so as to draw pollutants away from occupants, but problems arise when unintended flows draw contaminants into occupied areas. In addition, some contaminants may be removed from the air through natural processes, as with the adsorption of chemicals by surfaces or the settling of particles onto surfaces. Removal processes may also be deliberately incorporated into the building systems. Air filtration devices, for example, are commonly incorporated into building ventilation systems.

Managing the Indoor air Quality in Buildings

Remodeling and Renovation

  • Use effective strategies for material selection and installation.
  • Isolate construction activity from occupants.

Painting

Establish a protocol for painting and insure that the protocol is followed by both in-house personnel and by contractors.

  • Use low VOC emission, fast drying paints where feasible.
  • Paint during unoccupied hours.
  • Keep lids on paint containers when not in use.
  • Ventilate the building with significant quantities of outside air during and after painting. Insure a complete building flush prior to occupancy.
  • Use more than normal outside air ventilation for some period after occupancy.
  • Avoid spraying, when possible.

Pest Control Integrated Pest Management

  • Use or require the use of Integrated Pest Management by pest control contractors in order to minimize the use of pesticides when managing pests.
  • Control dirt, moisture, clutter, foodstuff, harborage and building penetrations to minimize pests.
  • Use baits and traps rather than pesticide sprays where possible.
  • Avoid periodic pesticide application for “prevention” of pests.
  • Use pesticides only where pests are located.
  • Use pesticide specifically formulated for the targeted pest.
  • Apply pesticides only during unoccupied hours.
  • Ventilate the building with significant quantities of outside air during and after applications.
  • Insure a complete building flush prior to occupancy.
  • Use more than normal outside air ventilation for some period after occupancy.
  • Notify occupants prior to occupation.
  • If applying outside, keep away from air intake.

Establish and Enforce a Smoking Policy

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major indoor air contaminant. A smoking policy may take one of two forms:

  • A smoke-free policy which does not allow smoking in any part of the building.
  • A policy that restricts smoking to designated smoking lounges only.

Managing Moisture and Mold

Mold thrives in the presence of water. The secret to controlling mold is to control moisture and relative humidity

  • Keep relative humidity below 60% (50%, if feasible, to control dust mites)

Keep all parts of the building dry that are not designed to be wet

  • Adequately insulate exterior walls or ceilings to avoid condensation on cold surfaces
  • Insulate cold water pipes to avoid sweating
  • Clean spills immediately. Thoroughly clean and dry liquid spills on porous surfaces such as carpet within 24 hours, or discard the material
  • Do not allow standing water in any location
  • Maintain proper water drainage around the perimeter of the building
  • Provide sufficient exhaust in showers or kitchen areas producing steam

Thoroughly clean areas that are designed to be wet

  • Wash floors and walls often where water accumulates (e.g., showers)
  • Clean drain pans often and insure a proper slope to keep water draining
  • Insure proper maintenance and treatment of cooling tower operations

Discard all material with signs of mold growth

  • Discard furniture, carpet, or similar porous material having a persistent musty odor
  • Discard furniture, carpet, or similar porous material that has been wet for more than 24 hours
  • Discard ceiling tiles with visible water stains

Conclusion

The direct impact of indoor air quality will not be readily apparent. It could be long to see a statistical change. But one thing we keep in mind that “People have the right to breathe clean and safe air everywhere”.

water Management

Require Planning for Strong Storm water Management in India

Stormwater is the water draining off a site from the rain that falls on the roof and land, and everything it carries with it. The soil, organic matter, litter, fertilisers from gardens and oil residues from driveways it carries can pollute downstream waterways.

Rainwater refers only to the rain that falls on the roof, which is usually cleaner. However, stormwater can be a valuable resource. Reusing stormwater can save potable water and reduce downstream environmental impacts.

In urban areas stormwater is generated by rain runoff from roofs, roads, driveways, footpaths and other impervious or hard surfaces. In Australia the stormwater system is separate from the sewer system. Unlike sewage, stormwater is generally not treated before being discharged to waterways and the sea.

Poorly managed stormwater can cause problems on and off site through erosion and the transportation of nutrients, chemical pollutants, litter and sediments to waterways. Well-managed stormwater can replace imported water for uses where high quality water is not required, such as garden watering.

A homeowner can take simple steps to manage stormwater and reduce its environmental impact.

Take some simple steps to better manage stormwater and reduce the environmental impact of your home.

  • Avoid cut and fill on your block when preparing the building foundations. Attempt to maintain the existing topography and drainage pattern.
  • Retain vegetation, particularly deep-rooted trees. They lower the watertable, bind the soil, filter nutrients, decrease runoff velocities, capture sediment and reduce the potential for dryland salinity.
  • Reduce erosion potential on site during building works by minimising the time that land is left in an exposed, unstable condition. Employ sediment traps and divert ‘clean’ stormwater around the disturbed site (see Sediment control).
  • Minimise the area of impervious surfaces such as paved areas, roofs and concrete driveways.
  • Grade impervious surfaces, such as driveways, during construction to drain to vegetated areas.

A stormwater site plan can help reduce stormwater runoff from the site.

  • Detain stormwater on your block where practicable through use of permeable paving, pebble paths, infiltration trenches, soakwells, lawns, garden areas and swales.
  • Harvest and store roof water for use (see Rainwater).
  • Take care with the substances used on your land as they can end up in the stormwater. Don’t overuse fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides; follow the manufacturer’s instructions on the amount and frequency of application. Look for organic alternatives.

Water sensitive urban design slows stormwater runoff and improves filtration and infiltration.

  • Avoid using solvent-based paints. After using water-based paints, clean brushes and equipment on a lawn area to trap contaminants before they reach waterways. Plant-based paints are the most environmentally benign.
  • Visit a car wash that recycles wash water. If this is not an option wash your car on the lawn or on an area that drains to lawn. The nutrients (mostly phosphates and nitrates) in the detergent fertilise the lawn instead of degrading waterways. Note that many native plants do not tolerate detergents.
  • Do not build on floodplains as the land may be periodically subject to inundation and may have a high watertable. Councils can advise on the 1 in 100 year flood level.

The traditional approach

The traditional stormwater management response relied on conveyancing. Water was conveyed by a pipe or channel from a collection area (e.g. house and street) to a discharge point (e.g. the nearest ocean, creek, river or lake). The conveyancing system sought to remove the most water (high quantity) from a site in the shortest time possible (high velocity). Large, impervious paved areas and big pipes are typical of conveyancing.

The traditional system of conveyancing is highly effective in reducing stormwater nuisance and flooding on site, unless the pipes get blocked. But it merely transfers the problem to the other end of the pipe and ultimately upsets local water balance. Stormwater is carried rapidly with its suspended litter, oil, sediment and nutrients, and dumped into a receiving waterbody that then becomes flooded and temporarily polluted because all the stormwater arrives at one time.

Water sensitive urban design

Water sensitive urban design (WSUD) seeks to imitate the natural water balance on site before the land is built on. It slows stormwater runoff to gain natural filtration, on-site detention and infiltration. The water eventually reaches the river, lake or ocean but has been cleaned and filtered by the soil and used by plants before it gets there.

Water sensitive urban design slows stormwater runoff to gain natural filtration, on-site detention and infiltration.

The objective is to minimise impervious surfaces so that the least water flows off-site into the stormwater system. At the scale of the individual household, options such as permeable paving on driveways and footpaths, garden beds designed for infiltration (raingardens), lawns and vegetation, swales and soakwells can detain stormwater and increase percolation into the soil.

In some cases it may be advisable to place perforated pipes beneath infiltration areas to direct excess stormwater to the stormwater system. See ‘References and additional reading’ for publications on options and possible designs.

The improved aesthetics and comfort associated with more vegetation also improve habitat for native wildlife and make the area cooler in summer. It reduces the need for garden watering and decreases water bills. Also reduced are erosion and the downstream effects of stormwater pollution on nearby rivers, lakes or the ocean.

Stormwater Management in the Indian Context

Every year during the monsoons, developed cities like Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai are crippled by continuous floods. While changing the city infrastructure as a whole would be a complicated and expensive concept, stormwater management practices can reduce the burden to a great extent. This is the only sustainable way to take care of the flooding, along with the pollution.

Conclusion

India faces a long list of problems as a result of uncontrolled urbanization but stormwater and the associated pollution is one of the first steps towards a truly developed nation.

 

Water Harvesting

Water Harvesting & Conservation techniques need to apply in buildings to make them more sustainable

Fresh, clean water is a limited resource. While most of the planet is covered in water, it is salt water that can only be consumed by humans and other species after undergoing desalination, which is an expensive process. Occurrences such as droughts further limit access to clean and fresh water, meaning people need to take steps to reduce water use and save as much water as possible. In some areas of the world, access to water is limited due to contamination. People who have access to fresh water can take steps to limit their use of water to avoid waste.

The Why and How of Water Conservation

People should do their best to conserve water for three reasons. The less water used or wasted by people, the less clean water will become contaminated. In some cases, using excess amounts of water puts strain on septic and sewage systems, leading to contamination of groundwater, as untreated, dirty water seeps from the sewage system into the ground.

Water conservation reduces energy use and can even save households money. Most families pay to use water in their cities or regions. The less water a household uses, the less they have to pay each period. Appliances that use water, such as washing machines and dishwashers, also use a considerable amount of energy.

Conserving water now allows cities and regions to plan for more efficient use of the water resources in the future. If most of an area’s clean water is wasted, there will not be water for future generations to use, meaning the city will need to come up with new ways to produce clean, fresh water, which will ultimately be at the taxpayers’ expense.

What’s Water Harvesting?

Watering harvesting means capturing rain water, where it falls and capture the runoff from, catchment and streams etc. Generally, water harvesting is direct rainwater collection. This collected water could be stored for later use and recharged into the ground water again. Rain is primary water source lakes, ground water and rivers are the secondary water source.

Nowadays we totally depend on secondary water sources, we just forget that rains are the source, which feeds all other secondary sources. So, water harvesting means we recognize the rain’ value and try to use the rain water, where it falls.

How can You Harvest Water

You can harvest rainwater at your home by the below mentioned method:

Capture runoff from rooftop

Do you have any idea? that about 60,000 gallons water runoff from your roofs and goes into street, streams and then in sea water. This water is getting cleaned, filtered and provided you on payment. Why don’t you eliminate this process? You just install water harvesting system in your home and use this runoff water.

Before you capture rainwater at your home successfully, keeping the following things in your mind:

How Much & Which Quality Water You Need

You need only a few litter water drink , drinking and cooking water must be potable, whereas, laundry water should be impurities less and gray water for growing vegetables and fruits.

How to Harvest Rain Water

Rainwater could be easily collected in plastic tanks. They are easy to install and handle. They are comparatively cheap from underground tanks, but definitely take up space. For harvesting rain water you first calculate the possible rain, you can do this by getting information from Meteorological Bureau of your area. They would give you information about the average rainfall during whole month.

For instance if you have 600mm rains every year and the area of your roof is 200 square meters, and you are interested to catch the whole area for one month storage. Your tank volume must be 10,000 liters. This quantity of water will give 10,000/30 about 33 liters water per day.

How Much Experience You Need

You all can do this work easily, without any kind of experience. You would be needed only a qualified electrician to fix the electrics and a plumber for sewage purpose. Of course, for working at heights and making connections one needs good safety practices.

Be Careful about the following things:

  1. Your water should not seep on the public roadway, or on the property of your neighbor.
  2. Water gets wasted by evaporation, so proper arrangement should be done.
  3. Regular maintenance is must.
  4. Never let the gutters block, leaf-guard is best, but it is expensive.
  5. In-line-leaf is good, but they need proper and regular cleaning.
  6. Your tank must be mosquito free.
  7. If you want to drink rain water, then, keep in mind that your roof should not be zinc-alum, because aluminum is dangerous for you.
  8. You should be aware of birds and animal droppings.
  9. It must be pollution free.

Benefits of Water Harvesting:

  1. It can be used for drinking.
  2. It could be utilized for irrigation purposes.
  3. This water increases the underwater level.
  4. It keeps you urban flood.
  5. Reduce sea water entrance in coastal areas.

Reference conserve energy !