Role Of Energy Efficient Pumps in making Sustainable Economy

Water pumps are responsible for heating and cooling in buildings, treating and distributing water, and generating power, that are often overlooked in conversations around smart or sustainable cities.

The network of water supply pipelines is one of the critical infrastructure needs for any city. Taking water to every corner of the city is one of the important roles for any municipal authority. Unfortunately the cities are losing up to 60% of pumped water due to poorly managed water networks. A total of 80% of all wastewater returns to nature without being properly treated. This has further led to modern challenges in the form of huge capital requirements, providing adequate inter-state transmission system (ISTS), distribution infrastructure and developing suitable land resources. But if we begin to use the same water multiple times, with appropriate treatment processes and the implementation of intelligent water solutions, we can transform and evolve at a faster pace where resources can be managed efficiently.

Water and Energy are Corelated Recourses

Water and energy are fundamental components for all human needs and they are co-related. Just how producing energy consumes water, treating and distributing water also requires energy. Water is used in all phases of energy production and electricity generation for various purposes at different stages. Energy is required to extract, convey, and deliver water for diverse human uses, and then again to treat wastewater prior to their return to the environment. Several current trends are further increasing the urgency to address the water-energy nexus in an integrated and proactive way. First, climate change has already begun to affect precipitation and temperature patterns across the world. Second, world’s population is rapidly increasing and so is the urbanization which creates differentiated and heavy loads at different usage points. Third, the introduction of new technologies in the energy and the water domains could shift water and energy demands. Finally, developments in policies addressing water rights and water impacts of energy production are introducing additional incentives and challenges for decision making.

Integral part of Pumps in Water-Energy nexus

Water pumps are responsible for heating and cooling in buildings, treating and distributing water, and generating power, that is often overlooked in conversations around smart or sustainable cities. Intelligent water solutions can help reduce losses. Governments, development agencies and the private sectors are exploring and implementing solutions to improve access to, and sustainability of water.While other renewable energy options are being adopted, the private sector is showing a keen interest in developing efficient solar pumping solutions.

About 10% of the world’s electricity is consumed by pumps for various applications. It is vital to save energy with intelligent and smart water solutions and bring down the consumption of electricity to 5%. The agricultural sector alone consumes approximately 80 percent of total supply.The decentralized solar water networks could be the answer to both water and energy issues in rural communities.

Pumps running on Renewable-energy

As the world envisions to move towards a greener economy, it is critical that we all start working towards a sustainable plan that would jumpstart the future. To address the growing energy needs and to reduce carbon emission, the Indian government has reimagined the national energy supply and demand management with a higher focus on solar. This was evident in the recent Union budget; several incentives and schemes were introduced for farmers. The government has set a goal to reduce its current dependency on fossil fuel by 40%, which highlights the commitments made in solar energy as a source for the long-term.

With a rejuvenated outlook on renewable energy from the government and private stakeholders in terms of investment and initiatives, the solar pump industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of over 27% during the period 2018-2024. Technological innovation and product democratization will determine the future of this industry. The Solar pump schemes via the flagship Government program PM KUSUM in the Agri sector and the Jal Jeevan mission for the piped water supply in rural communities is bound to drive the demand for solar pumps over the next four years.

Considering India’s tropical nature, solar pumps can be employed to provide a reliable water supply for irrigation, drinking water and ancillary activities in such remote locations. Dependence on grid-based electricity consumption can be brought down with the intervention of solar pumps, inadvertently leading to a sustainable option for the farmers and rural communities across the country. This shift ensures in an increase in sustainability while improving cost and operational efficiency. Technology driven solar solutions ensure that farmers can operate these pumps without frequent downtime or maintenance requirements. With the right backup systems the farmer can use the energy for other purposes like lighting, cold storage etc., when the field doesn’t require water and hence the pumps need not run.

Digital transformation to drive smart pump industry

Innovative technologies have been making positive strides in the water industry – augmenting the existing water infrastructure as well as contributing in improving the water accessibility and recycling while simultaneously reducing consumption and wastage.

Increasing urbanization is contributing to significant amounts in terms of energy consumed — the global cooling demand alone has doubled in less than 20 years. This growth in energy consumption is a major driver of climate change. There are plenty of intelligent solutions available; with more energy efficient pump solutions, we can reduce CO2 emissions while optimizing energy consumption of the pumps used in the process of cooling in the buildings.

By deploying smart pumps, it becomes easier to understand the specific water requirement and thus save this critical resource water. In the agricultural sector, an IoT enabled pump can give farmers full control to operate the entire system from his mobile phone – set the quantity of water to be pumped and time of watering his field and also get a real-time report of the critical health parameters of the pump system.

For example, KSB Pumps with intelligent and smart technology has acted as a change agent. The solution enables real-time monitoring, remote control, system optimization, fault prediction and preventive maintenance to achieve highest level of performance and savings both in cost and energy. These smart pumps automate, understand the specific water requirement, optimize the entire system and thus save this critical resource.

Creating a circular economy

In order to utilize water efficiently, there need to be shift from a linear ‘use and dispose’ approach to a circular ‘use, treat and reuse’ approach. Water can be reused several times before it reaches its destination. For example, water used in showers and kitchens can be reused to water plants or wash cars thereby reducing freshwater usage.

Adoption of intelligent water solutions is leading us to use water efficiently, with a greater focus to avoid overusing water and energy.

Poor Storm Water Management & the Clogged Drainage responsible for Recent Flood in Kerala

Heavy rains have battered God’s own country since August 8, more than four hundred deaths were reported across rain-devastated Kerala on with uncountable bodies of the victims seen floating on flood waters even as rescue and relief operations continued across the state.

Rapid urbanization, industrialization and population growth have also contributed to drainage systems getting congested. These drains are not able to take the pressure of huge water accumulated due to heavy rain, leading to waterlogging. Heavy downpours have been disrupting normal life in almost all urban cities in India. Power supply and communication links snapped, shortage of food, potable water and medicines and scores of people awaiting evacuation from affected areas.

The urban floods are entirely manmade with poorly maintained drains, plastic bags, shrinking open spaces and climate change contributing to accumulation of water on roads after a heavy downpour. Items such as fat and cooking oil, sanitary products, nappies, cotton buds and wipes must always be disposed of in your rubbish bin. The sewer system is only designed to take away water used for washing human waste. Even the sewer pipe is not totally blocked, its ability to drain away is severely affected. During heavy rain, this often leads to water backing up and forcing its way out of the sewer pipe.

You can help to keep your home and the environment safe by not disposing of unsuitable materials down your toilet or sink.

At Econaur we provide sustainable products that are required in construction. The Products/Materials that Econaur Showcase are made from recyclable or non-recyclable process but their overall contribution is in decreasing the greenhouse gas emissions, decreasing the energy & water consumption.

For any support on sustainable solutions or methods do write us at connect@econaur.com

Understanding the working & the need for Waste Water Management in India

Indian Cities do have Sewage Treatment Plants in India. In fact, After China, India is the only country which is working on the water treatment activities very efficiently and effectively. We all know, sewage water is the result of domestic activities, natural activities like rain and industrial activities. Regular flow of infected water may increase the flow of sewage which needs to clean. As if the water flows up on the roads, it haphazard the regular commutation.

Usually waste water is thrown over the roads or may be stored in big tanks which may recycled for further construction and agriculture work.

What is Waste Water? How is it generated?

Waste water is the water that emerges after fresh water is used by human beings for domestic, commercial and industrial use. This document will restrict itself only to the waste water generated due to domestic use.

By and large,it is fresh water that is used for a variety of domestic uses such as washing, bathing & flushing toilets. Washing involves the washing of utensils used in cooking, washing vegetables and other food items, bathing, washing hands, washing clothes.

The water that emerges after these uses contains, vegetable matter, oils used in cooking, oil in hair, detergents, dirt from floors that have been washed , soap used in bathing along with oils/greases washed from the human body. This water is referred to as “ Grey Water” or sullage.

Water used to flush toilets to evacuate human excreta is called “ Black Water” or Sewage.

Grey water is easier to purify as compared to black water, i.e sewage. However, the practice predominantly followed in India is to combine these two wastes to discharge into a public sewer or into a sewage treatment plant in a residential community/ building that has no access to a public sewer.

What are the constituents of waste water (sewage) ?

Waste water contains all the dissolved minerals present in the fresh water that was used and which became waste water as well as all the other contaminants mentioned above. These are proteins, carbohydrates, oils & fats. These contaminants are degradable and use up oxygen in the degradation process.

Therefore, these are measured in terms of their demand for oxygen which can be established by certain tests in a laboratory. This is called Bio Degradable Oxygen demand(BOD). Some chemicals which also contaminate the water during the process of domestic use also degrade and use oxygen and the test done to establish this demand which is called Chemical Oxgen demand (COD).

Typically a domestic sewage would contain approximately 300 to 450 mg/litre of BOD and COD on an average. Sewage also contains coliform bacteria (e coli) which is harmful to human beings if water containing such bacteria is consumed(drunk). E coli is bacteria that thrives in the intestines of warm blooded creatures such as humans, animals and birds.

Another feature of sewage is the high level of Total Suspended Solids (TSS). This is what gives the sewage a black colour ,hence the name “ black water”. If sewage is allowed to turn septic, it then also has a strong, unpleasant odour.

what is the need for treating waste water ?

Much of the water used for domestic purposes does not require potable ( suitable for drinking) water quality. For instance, water used for flushing toilets or for washing floors, yards or roads & gardening does not require to be potable. In a scenario where fresh water is getting increasingly scarce and when enormous volumes of sewage generated in the country are not being treated ,but goes unchecked to pollute fresh water from lakes, rivers and the ground water table, it must be treated.

Discharging untreated sewage into any drains other than an underground sewerage system, or into open land , is an offence and invites prosecution under the laws of all Pollution Control Boards in the country.

Sewage must necessarily be treated correctly and then re-used/re-cycled for various uses that do not need potable water quality. Recycling/re-using treated sewage can reduce fresh water requirements very substantially, by almost 50-60%.

In a scenario where fresh water availability itself is increasingly in doubt this is critical.

How can treated sewage be re-used/re-cycled ?

This requires plumbing to be laid so as to serve two sets of storage tanks on the roofs of any residential/commercial building. One set of storage tanks will be used to receive and store fresh water which will flow through plumbing laid to take it to bathrooms and kitchens where it can be used for drinking, cooking, washing & bathing.

The second set of tanks will receive treated sewage which will be connected by plumbing to all the flush tanks in toilets and to other points where the water can be used for washing yards, floors and also for gardening.

How is waste water treated ?

Sullage (grey water) which is mentioned above, if collected in a storage tank separately can be treated by aerating it to prevent it from turning septic, and then dosed with a coagulant, chlorinated and then subjected to filtration by pressure sand filtration followed by activated carbon filtration and stored in a separate overhead tank or tanks from which it can be used for flushing toilets and other uses where fresh or potable water is not required.

However, the current practice is to combine sullage and sewage (black water) and treat the mixture in an STP (Sewage treatment plant). This practice has come in predominantly to reduce the cost of construction of two separate plants and because space is now at a premium in any building.

why not consider grey water treatment seriously in spite of the extra space it requires ?

From the point of view of a resident it is worth considering as it enhances the water security of the resident. A builder’s priority is totally different, since the space taken up by the treatment system can not be ‘sold’ to a buyer, he will just not consider it, instead the builder will combine greywater with sewage in an STP. This enables the builder to save costs.

However if looked at from the residents’ view point, a separate grey water treatment system being easier to operate provides a facility to ‘fall back on’ when the STP fails.

 

How can common problems in Water water treatment plant can be avoided and/or resolved?

  • Modern designs for STPs which are modular are available from reputed companies which are in the field of water and waste water treatment. Such companies have standardized designs where,for instance an STP to handle 150 KLD ( 150,000 Litres per day) of sewage can be made up of 3 modular STPs each of 50KLD capacity. Such an installation would be able to handle the initial lower load of sewage with one module in operation with remaining modules being commissioned/started up as the sewage volume increases. Such a modular approach also makes it possible to handle sewage in the case of a break-down of the STP as it is extremely rare for all modules to break-down together. In short, there is a stand-by always available. For several years now a few companies have been offering microbial agents which can help overcome these problems if these microbial agents are added to the incoming sewage. Go in for Modular STPs & use microbial agents regularly.

 

  •  It is equally important to know and be able to control the volume of fresh water used in a community so that it does not exceed the design capacity of an STP. This involves installing water meters at all crucial points to measure water flow (consumption) & thereafter taking action to curb excess consumption of fresh water to prevent overloading the STP. Control excess consumption of fresh water and thereby prevent overloading of the STP

 

  • Builders are not expected to be experts in water or sewage treatment plant design, manufacture etc. They can however have tie-ups with reputed environmental engineering companies with sound technical experience and a proven track record, to make up for their lack of knowledge. This seldom happens since a builder’s interest ends with selling a completed project and then handing over the project to the Resident’s Association as soon as possible, often without even demonstrating actual, successful operation of the water infrastructure. Most builders link up with small, obscure local companies with inadequate knowledge and expertise in waste and water treatment,but will put up something for an extremely low price. The result is poor/ wrong operation of an STP leading to untreated sewage and unpleasant odours from it. Ensure supply of an STP from a reputed supplier and entrust operation & maintenance to a well trained professional team.

 

  • One of the major reasons for STPs not working properly is the fluctuations in input loads. Flow of sewage in a residential community is never uniform. It varies with peak flows in the morning (residents getting ready to go to work), very low or almost no flows later in the day with another peak in the evening. Raw sewage is collected in a sewage balancing tank(mentioned above) which should be sized to hold at least 6 to 8 hours flow of sewage. This ensures that the sewage collected in the balancing tank is homogenized, thereby avoiding input fluctuations in input load on the STP. Do not compromise on the size of a raw sewage balancing tank.

 

  • High noise levels from an STP are due to the operation of electric motor driven equipment such as pumps, air blowers, air compressors, etc. Old designs/makes of pumps, blowers , compressors , etc are still available at very low prices in the market and these are used in most of the STPs that have been put up. The noise levels of such equipment is very high as compared to modern, world class pumps and rotary motor driven equipment now available in India. These modern makes are almost noiseless and extremely efficient. The old designs are also the cause of high energy consumption in addition to very high noise levels. As per the laws in force in India, the noise level permitted in a residential area is 55 dB (dB= decibels of sound) during day time,i.e from 6:00 am to 10:00 pm and 45 dB during night time(10:00pm to 6:00 am).As compared to these limits, the actual noise levels are likely to be as high as 75 dB or higher. To reduce noise levels and high energy consumption, it will be necessary to replace most of the critical rotary motor driven equipment with the latest noiseless high efficiency equipment. Here it is advisable to choose a reputed company with an established reputation in sewage/waste water treatment to buy an STP. Such companies have constantly improved their designs to reduce the foot prints (space occupied) of their equipment and reduction in the power consumption of power by a very appreciable amount. Unfortunately, residents have no say in this as they face up to this crucial fact when it is too late as the STP has been ordered probably even before the residents bought a home in the property.

Population growth and particularly the development of megacities is making SWM in India a major problem. The current situation is that India relies on inadequate waste infrastructure, the informal sector and waste dumping. There are major issues associated with public participation in waste management and there is generally a lack of responsibility towards waste in the community. There is a need to cultivate community awareness and change the attitude of people towards waste, as this is fundamental to developing proper and sustainable waste management systems. Sustainable and economically viable waste management must ensure maximum resource extraction from waste, combined with safe disposal of residual waste through the development of engineered landfill and waste-to-energy facilities. India faces challenges related to waste policy, waste technology selection and the availability of appropriately trained people in the waste management sector. Until these fundamental requirements are met, India will continue to suffer from poor waste management and the associated impacts on public health and the environment.

Require Planning for Strong Storm water Management in India

storm tsunami water management

Stormwater is the water draining off a site from the rain that falls on the roof and land, and everything it carries with it. The soil, organic matter, litter, fertilisers from gardens and oil residues from driveways it carries can pollute downstream waterways.

Rainwater refers only to the rain that falls on the roof, which is usually cleaner. However, stormwater can be a valuable resource. Reusing stormwater can save potable water and reduce downstream environmental impacts.

In urban areas stormwater is generated by rain runoff from roofs, roads, driveways, footpaths and other impervious or hard surfaces. In Australia the stormwater system is separate from the sewer system. Unlike sewage, stormwater is generally not treated before being discharged to waterways and the sea.

Poorly managed stormwater can cause problems on and off site through erosion and the transportation of nutrients, chemical pollutants, litter and sediments to waterways. Well-managed stormwater can replace imported water for uses where high quality water is not required, such as garden watering.

A homeowner can take simple steps to manage stormwater and reduce its environmental impact.

Take some simple steps to better manage stormwater and reduce the environmental impact of your home.

  • Avoid cut and fill on your block when preparing the building foundations. Attempt to maintain the existing topography and drainage pattern.
  • Retain vegetation, particularly deep-rooted trees. They lower the watertable, bind the soil, filter nutrients, decrease runoff velocities, capture sediment and reduce the potential for dryland salinity.
  • Reduce erosion potential on site during building works by minimising the time that land is left in an exposed, unstable condition. Employ sediment traps and divert ‘clean’ stormwater around the disturbed site (see Sediment control).
  • Minimise the area of impervious surfaces such as paved areas, roofs and concrete driveways.
  • Grade impervious surfaces, such as driveways, during construction to drain to vegetated areas.

A stormwater site plan can help reduce stormwater runoff from the site.

  • Detain stormwater on your block where practicable through use of permeable paving, pebble paths, infiltration trenches, soakwells, lawns, garden areas and swales.
  • Harvest and store roof water for use (see Rainwater).
  • Take care with the substances used on your land as they can end up in the stormwater. Don’t overuse fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides; follow the manufacturer’s instructions on the amount and frequency of application. Look for organic alternatives.

Water sensitive urban design slows stormwater runoff and improves filtration and infiltration.

  • Avoid using solvent-based paints. After using water-based paints, clean brushes and equipment on a lawn area to trap contaminants before they reach waterways. Plant-based paints are the most environmentally benign.
  • Visit a car wash that recycles wash water. If this is not an option wash your car on the lawn or on an area that drains to lawn. The nutrients (mostly phosphates and nitrates) in the detergent fertilise the lawn instead of degrading waterways. Note that many native plants do not tolerate detergents.
  • Do not build on floodplains as the land may be periodically subject to inundation and may have a high watertable. Councils can advise on the 1 in 100 year flood level.

The traditional approach

The traditional stormwater management response relied on conveyancing. Water was conveyed by a pipe or channel from a collection area (e.g. house and street) to a discharge point (e.g. the nearest ocean, creek, river or lake). The conveyancing system sought to remove the most water (high quantity) from a site in the shortest time possible (high velocity). Large, impervious paved areas and big pipes are typical of conveyancing.

The traditional system of conveyancing is highly effective in reducing stormwater nuisance and flooding on site, unless the pipes get blocked. But it merely transfers the problem to the other end of the pipe and ultimately upsets local water balance. Stormwater is carried rapidly with its suspended litter, oil, sediment and nutrients, and dumped into a receiving waterbody that then becomes flooded and temporarily polluted because all the stormwater arrives at one time.

Water sensitive urban design

Water sensitive urban design (WSUD) seeks to imitate the natural water balance on site before the land is built on. It slows stormwater runoff to gain natural filtration, on-site detention and infiltration. The water eventually reaches the river, lake or ocean but has been cleaned and filtered by the soil and used by plants before it gets there.

Water sensitive urban design slows stormwater runoff to gain natural filtration, on-site detention and infiltration.

The objective is to minimise impervious surfaces so that the least water flows off-site into the stormwater system. At the scale of the individual household, options such as permeable paving on driveways and footpaths, garden beds designed for infiltration (raingardens), lawns and vegetation, swales and soakwells can detain stormwater and increase percolation into the soil.

In some cases it may be advisable to place perforated pipes beneath infiltration areas to direct excess stormwater to the stormwater system. See ‘References and additional reading’ for publications on options and possible designs.

The improved aesthetics and comfort associated with more vegetation also improve habitat for native wildlife and make the area cooler in summer. It reduces the need for garden watering and decreases water bills. Also reduced are erosion and the downstream effects of stormwater pollution on nearby rivers, lakes or the ocean.

Stormwater Management in the Indian Context

Every year during the monsoons, developed cities like Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai are crippled by continuous floods. While changing the city infrastructure as a whole would be a complicated and expensive concept, stormwater management practices can reduce the burden to a great extent. This is the only sustainable way to take care of the flooding, along with the pollution.

Conclusion

India faces a long list of problems as a result of uncontrolled urbanization but stormwater and the associated pollution is one of the first steps towards a truly developed nation.

Water Harvesting & Conservation techniques need to apply in buildings to make them more sustainable

water conservation HD picture

Fresh, clean water is a limited resource. While most of the planet is covered in water, it is salt water that can only be consumed by humans and other species after undergoing desalination, which is an expensive process. Occurrences such as droughts further limit access to clean and fresh water, meaning people need to take steps to reduce water use and save as much water as possible. In some areas of the world, access to water is limited due to contamination. People who have access to fresh water can take steps to limit their use of water to avoid waste.

The Why and How of Water Conservation

People should do their best to conserve water for three reasons. The less water used or wasted by people, the less clean water will become contaminated. In some cases, using excess amounts of water puts strain on septic and sewage systems, leading to contamination of groundwater, as untreated, dirty water seeps from the sewage system into the ground.

Water conservation reduces energy use and can even save households money. Most families pay to use water in their cities or regions. The less water a household uses, the less they have to pay each period. Appliances that use water, such as washing machines and dishwashers, also use a considerable amount of energy.

Conserving water now allows cities and regions to plan for more efficient use of the water resources in the future. If most of an area’s clean water is wasted, there will not be water for future generations to use, meaning the city will need to come up with new ways to produce clean, fresh water, which will ultimately be at the taxpayers’ expense.

What’s Water Harvesting?

Watering harvesting means capturing rain water, where it falls and capture the runoff from, catchment and streams etc. Generally, water harvesting is direct rainwater collection. This collected water could be stored for later use and recharged into the ground water again. Rain is primary water source lakes, ground water and rivers are the secondary water source.

Nowadays we totally depend on secondary water sources, we just forget that rains are the source, which feeds all other secondary sources. So, water harvesting means we recognize the rain’ value and try to use the rain water, where it falls.

How can You Harvest Water

You can harvest rainwater at your home by the below mentioned method:

Capture runoff from rooftop

Do you have any idea? that about 60,000 gallons water runoff from your roofs and goes into street, streams and then in sea water. This water is getting cleaned, filtered and provided you on payment. Why don’t you eliminate this process? You just install water harvesting system in your home and use this runoff water.

Before you capture rainwater at your home successfully, keeping the following things in your mind:

How Much & Which Quality Water You Need

You need only a few litter water drink , drinking and cooking water must be potable, whereas, laundry water should be impurities less and gray water for growing vegetables and fruits.

How to Harvest Rain Water

Rainwater could be easily collected in plastic tanks. They are easy to install and handle. They are comparatively cheap from underground tanks, but definitely take up space. For harvesting rain water you first calculate the possible rain, you can do this by getting information from Meteorological Bureau of your area. They would give you information about the average rainfall during whole month.

For instance if you have 600mm rains every year and the area of your roof is 200 square meters, and you are interested to catch the whole area for one month storage. Your tank volume must be 10,000 liters. This quantity of water will give 10,000/30 about 33 liters water per day.

How Much Experience You Need

You all can do this work easily, without any kind of experience. You would be needed only a qualified electrician to fix the electrics and a plumber for sewage purpose. Of course, for working at heights and making connections one needs good safety practices.

Be Careful about the following things:

  1. Your water should not seep on the public roadway, or on the property of your neighbor.
  2. Water gets wasted by evaporation, so proper arrangement should be done.
  3. Regular maintenance is must.
  4. Never let the gutters block, leaf-guard is best, but it is expensive.
  5. In-line-leaf is good, but they need proper and regular cleaning.
  6. Your tank must be mosquito free.
  7. If you want to drink rain water, then, keep in mind that your roof should not be zinc-alum, because aluminum is dangerous for you.
  8. You should be aware of birds and animal droppings.
  9. It must be pollution free.

Benefits of Water Harvesting:

  1. It can be used for drinking.
  2. It could be utilized for irrigation purposes.
  3. This water increases the underwater level.
  4. It keeps you urban flood.
  5. Reduce sea water entrance in coastal areas.

Reference conserve energy !

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